Theme: The North effectively
brought to bear its long-term advantages of industrial might and human resources
to wage a devastating total war against the South. The war helped organize
and modernize northern society, while the South, despite heroic efforts, was
economically and socially crushed.
skillful political leadership helped keep the crucial Border States in the
Union and maintain northern morale, while his effective diplomacy kept Britain
and France from aiding the Confederacy.