Kennedys New Frontier initiatives bogged
down in congressional stalemate. Cold War confrontations over Berlin and Russian
missiles in Cuba created threats of war. Countering Third World communism
through flexible response led the administration into dangerous involvement
in Vietnam and elsewhere.
Johnson succeeded Kennedy and overwhelmingly
defeated Goldwater. The black movement for integration and voting rights won
great victories. Johnson used his huge congressional majorities to push through
a mass of liberal Great Society legislation. Northern black ghettos erupted
in violence amid calls for black power.
Johnson escalated military involvement in the
Dominican Republic and Vietnam. As the number of troops and casualties grew
without producing military success, dovish protests against the war gained
strength. Political opposition forced Johnson not to seek reelection, and
the deep Democratic divisions over the war allowed Nixon to win the White