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Chapter 38: The Stormy Sixties, 1960-1968

black separatism

the doctrine that blacks in the United States ought to separate themselves from whites, either in separate institutions or in a separate political territory.


in international affairs, a period of relaxed agreement in areas of mutual interest.


someone who dissents, especially from an established or normative institution or position.


during the Vietnam War, someone who opposed the war and favored de-escalation or withdrawal by the United States.


the ruling inner circle of a nation and its principal institutions.

free world

during the Cold War, the noncommunist democracies of the Western world, as opposed to the communist states.


the district of a city where members of a religious or racial minority are forced to live, either by legal restriction or by informal social pressure.


during the Vietnam War, someone who favored vigorous prosecution or escalation of the conflict.

literacy test

a literacy examination that a person must pass before being allowed to vote.

nuclear proliferation

the spreading of nuclear weapons to nations that have not previously had them.

peaceful coexistence

the principle or policy that communist and noncommunist--specifically, the United States and the Soviet Union--ought to live together without trying to dominate or destroy each other.


a demonstration in which people occupy a facility for a sustained period to achieve political or economic goals.

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