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Glossary

Chapter 30: The War to End War, 1917-1918

belligerent

a nation formally at war.

Bolshevik

the radical majority faction of the Russian Socialist party that seized power in the October 1917 revolution; they later took the name Communist.

collective security

in international affairs, reliance on a group of nations or an international organization as protection against aggressors, rather than on national self-defense alone.

conscientious objector

a person who refuses to participate in war on grounds of conscience or belief.

Contraband

goods prohibited from being imported or exported; in time of war, contraband included materials of war.

Demagogue

a politician who arouses fervor by appealing to the lowest emotions of a mass audience, such as fear, hatred, and greed.

Isolationism

in American diplomacy, the traditional belief that the United States should refrain from involvement in overseas politics, alliances, or wars, and confine its national security interest to its own borders (anti-internationalism).

Mandate

under the League of Nations (1919-1939), a specific commission that authorized a trustee to administer a former colonial territory.

Mobilization

the organization of a nation and its armed forces for war.

Parliamentary

concerning political systems in which the government is constituted from the controlling party's members in the legislative assembly.

Protectorate

in international affairs, a weaker or smaller country held to be under the guidance or protection of a major power; the arrangement is a weaker form of imperialism of colonialism.

Ration

a fixed allowance of food or other scarce commodity.

Reparations

payments required as compensation for damage or injury.

Reservation

a portion of a deed, contract, or treaty that places conditions or restrictions on the general obligations.

Salient

a portion of a battle line that extends forward into enemy territory.


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