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Chapter 30: The War to End War, 1917-1918


a nation formally at war.


the radical majority faction of the Russian Socialist party that seized power in the October 1917 revolution; they later took the name Communist.

collective security

in international affairs, reliance on a group of nations or an international organization as protection against aggressors, rather than on national self-defense alone.

conscientious objector

a person who refuses to participate in war on grounds of conscience or belief.


goods prohibited from being imported or exported; in time of war, contraband included materials of war.


a politician who arouses fervor by appealing to the lowest emotions of a mass audience, such as fear, hatred, and greed.


in American diplomacy, the traditional belief that the United States should refrain from involvement in overseas politics, alliances, or wars, and confine its national security interest to its own borders (anti-internationalism).


under the League of Nations (1919-1939), a specific commission that authorized a trustee to administer a former colonial territory.


the organization of a nation and its armed forces for war.


concerning political systems in which the government is constituted from the controlling party's members in the legislative assembly.


in international affairs, a weaker or smaller country held to be under the guidance or protection of a major power; the arrangement is a weaker form of imperialism of colonialism.


a fixed allowance of food or other scarce commodity.


payments required as compensation for damage or injury.


a portion of a deed, contract, or treaty that places conditions or restrictions on the general obligations.


a portion of a battle line that extends forward into enemy territory.

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