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Chapter 28: Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt, 1901-1912


the management of government or business through departments and subdivisions manned by a system of officials following defined rules and processes.

city manager

an administrator appointed by the city council or other elected body to manage affairs, supposedly in a nonpartisan or professional way.


a political or social system in which individuals are subordinated to mass organization and direction.

conspicuous consumption

the theory, developed by economist Thorstein Veblen, that much spending by the affluent occurs primarily to display wealth and status to others rather than from enjoyment of the goods or services.

direct primary

in politics, the nomination of a party's candidates for office through a special election of that party's voters.


in politics, the procedure whereby voters can, through petition, present proposed legislation directly to the electorate.

interlocking directorates

situation in which the same individuals sit on the boards of directors of various companies in one industry.


in politics, one who believes in continuing social advancement, improvement, or reform.


in politics, a procedure for removing an official from office through popular election or other means.


the process of bringing or restoring wasteland to productive use.


the submission of a law, proposed or already in effect, to a direct vote of the electorate.

workers' compensation

insurance, provided either by government or employers or both, providing benefits to employees suffering work-related injury or disability.

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