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Chapter 20: Girding for War: The North and the South, 1861-1865


a sum of money or property legally authorized to be spent for a specific purpose.


governed by indeterminate preference or whim rather than by settled principle or law.


the settlement of a dispute by putting the mandatory decision in the hands of a third, neutral party.


in finance, an interest-bearing certificate issued by a government or business that guarantees repayment to the purchaser on a specified date at a predetermined rate of interest.


the corrupt acquisition of funds, through outright theft or embezzling or through questionably legal methods like kickbacks or insider trading.


United States paper currency, especially that printed before the establishment of the Federal Reserve System.

habeas corpus

in law, a judicial order requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court at a specified time and place in order to determine the legality of the imprisonment (literally, "produce the body.")

moral suasion

the effort to move others to a particular course of action through appeals to moral values and beliefs, without the use of enticements or force.


one who takes advantage of a shortage of supply to charge excessively high prices and thus reap large profits.


the proportion or share of a larger number of things that a smaller group is assigned to contribute.


a special unit of warships assigned to a particular naval task.

total war

war waged to destroy both the human and economic resources of the enemy.


a final proposal or demand, as by one nation to another, that if rejected, will likely lead to war.

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