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Glossary

Chapter 13: The Rise of a Mass Democracy, 1824-1840

Deference

the yielding of opinion to the judgment of someone else.

Denominations

in American religion, the major branches of Christianity, organized into distinct church structures, e.g., Presbyterians, Baptists, Disciples of Christ, etc.

divine right

the belief that government or rulers are directly established by God.

Evangelical

in American religion, those believers and groups, usually Protestant, who emphasize personal salvation, individual conversion experiences, voluntary commitment, and the authority of Scripture.

favorite sons

in American politics, presidential candidates who are nominated by their own state, primarily out of local loyalty.

hard money

metal money or coins, as distinguished from paper money. Reliable or secure money; specie.

Machine

a hierarchical political organization, often controlled through patronage or spoils, where professional workers deliver large blocs of voters to preferred candidates.

Mudslinging

malicious, unscrupulous attacks against an opponent.

Nullification

refusal by a state to recognize or enforce a federal law within its boundaries.

Plurality

in an election with three or more candidates, the number of votes received by the winner when the winner receives less than half of the total number of votes cast.

Populist

a political program or style focused on the common people, and attacking perspectives and policies associated with the well-off, well-born, or well-educated.

Spoils

public offices given as a reward for political support.

Temperance

campaigns for voluntary commitment to moderation or total abstinence in the consumption of liquor. (Prohibition involved instead forcible legal bans on the production or consumption of alcohol.)

Usurpation

the act of seizing, occupying, or enjoying the place, power, or functions of someone without legal right.


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