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Chapter 9: The Confederation and the Constitution, 1776-1790


an advocate of the end of slavery.


to make a smaller territory or political unit part of a larger one.

Bill of Rights

a list of fundamental freedoms assumed to be central to society.


an article of personal or movable property; hence a term applied to slaves, since they were considered the personal property of their owners.

civil liberties

fundamental individual rights such as freedom of speech and religion, protected by law against interference from the government.


to separate an official state church from its connection with the government.


setting free from servitude or slavery.


depriving someone of the right to redeem mortgaged property because the legal payments on the loan have not been kept up.

proportional representation

representation in a national legislature based on the population of each state.


the minimum number of persons who must be present in a group before it can conduct valid business.


the confirmation or validation of an act (such as a constitution) by authoritative approval.


a demand for something issued on the basis of public authority.


in American government, an organized political entity not yet enjoying the full and equal status of a state.


in America, a surveyed territory six miles square; the term also refers to a unit of local government, smaller than a county, that is often based on these survey units.

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