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Psychology Applied to Teaching, Eleventh Edition
Jack Snowman, Southern Illinois University
Robert Biehler
Chapter Themes
Chapter 12: Motivation

Behavioral learning theorists provide one way to explain motivation.
Operant conditioning provides insight on the topic of motivation by discussing changes in behavior. Individuals are motivated to carry out certain tasks and behaviors based on reinforcement from others (extrinsic motivation).

Social cognitive theorists provide an alternative explanation of motivation.
Social cognitive theorists believe that individuals are motivated by different factors, both cognitive and behavioral. Individuals can be motivated through the observation and imitation of admired models. In addition, self-efficacy plays an important role in motivation. Self-efficacy affects the goals we set, how persistent we are in achieving those goals, and the attributions we make for success and failure.

Cognitive theorists provide another way to explain motivation.
Cognitive theories argue that motivation is influenced by a variety of cognitive factors. The attributions we make about task outcomes (successes and failures) impact our motivation. Other factors such as achievement needs, interest, and a desire to master one's environment also contribute to one's motivational level.

The humanistic view provides another perspective on motivation.
According to Abraham Maslow's humanistic view, we are motivated to satisfy a number of needs. Among these needs are physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. Only when we have met the lower needs can we attempt to fill growth needs such as the need for self-actualization.

The perception we have about ourselves impacts motivation.
Self-concept, how we view ourselves, and self-esteem, the value we give to these descriptions, are both important influences on motivation. Self-esteem plays a role in our beliefs about attempting and carrying out given tasks (self-efficacy). Our self-esteem changes as we encounter new situations and outcomes.

Technology can play a vital role in enhancing student motivation.
Technology can be used to support and develop both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among students. Technology allows students to explore a wide range of topics and areas of interest and can provide an interesting and intriguing option for learning.