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Psychology Applied to Teaching, Eleventh Edition
Jack Snowman, Southern Illinois University
Robert Biehler
Chapter Themes
Chapter 9: Social Cognitive Theory

Social cognitive theory has been used to explain how people become self-regulated learners.
Albert Bandura is said to be the father of social cognitive theory. His theory, the Triadic Reciprocal Causation Model, is designed to explain how learning results from interactions among three factors: (1) personal characteristics; (2) behavioral patterns, and (3) the social environment. Self-regulation, which is the consistent use of self-control skills in new situations, is the product of interactions between all three components.

Self-regulation is an important skill for students to acquire.
As students progress through school, they are expected to become increasingly more independent learners. They are expected to assume greater responsibility for their learning with less prompting and guidance from teachers and parents. Furthermore, in this information age of rapid change, it is important for all people to have strong skills in self-direction.

Self-efficacy makes an impact on the behaviors we choose.
Self-efficacy refers to how capable we feel that we are able to handle particular kinds of tasks. Our sense of efficacy impacts the tasks we choose to carry out, the effort we put into those tasks, and the extent to which we persevere when we encounter obstacles. Educators need to recognize that a low sense of self-efficacy among students can lead to lower levels of effort and initiative when facing challenging educational tasks.

The self-regulatory system is made up of three components.
The first component includes the forethought processes that occur prior to beginning a task. These processes include task analysis and self-motivational beliefs. The second component consists of the performance processes, including self-control and self-observation, which are activated during the completion of a task. The final component includes the self-reflection processes that occur after the completion of a task. The self-reflection processes include self-judgment and self-reaction.

Technology can be used to help promote self-regulation.
Technology can do for self-regulated learning many of the things that teachers do. Computer-based videos can be used to model various self-regulation skills. Computers can also be used to provide valuable metacognitive feedback for students, as well as scaffolding of students' skills.