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Psychology Applied to Teaching, Eleventh Edition
Jack Snowman, Southern Illinois University
Robert Biehler
Chapter Themes
Chapter 4: Understanding Student Difference

Intelligence can be defined in a variety of ways.
Theorists disagree about whether intelligence is a single capacity or whether it consists of multiple domain specific components. Traditionally, the construct of intelligence has been defined by a relatively small set of cognitive skills measured by standardized IQ tests. Other areas of intelligence are currently being explored through research and practice.

Children enter classrooms with different types of learning styles.
The learning styles children bring with them to the classroom tell us a great deal about the circumstances under which they excel. Variations in learning style help us to remember to be flexible in our teaching and to incorporate a variety of methods in our instruction.

Gender differences exist in some areas of achievement patterns of males and females.
Males and females excel in different areas of achievement. For example, males tend to do better on mathematical tasks while females tend to do better on verbal tasks. There is no real consensus as to why these differences exist. However, one potential cause that has been investigated within the field of education is gender bias.

Technology can be used to accommodate student differences.
Varied types of technology programs including multimedia and hypermedia help teachers support students with an increasingly broad range of abilities in the classroom. In this sense, technology helps teachers to individualize instruction to meet diverse student needs.