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Psychology Applied to Teaching, Eleventh Edition
Jack Snowman, Southern Illinois University
Robert Biehler
Chapter Themes
Chapter 3: Age-Level Characteristics

Between the preschool and high school years, there are fluctuations in the rate of physical development.
During the preschool and early elementary school years, physical growth is quite rapid. Children are very active during this time. During the later elementary school years, physical growth begins to slow down. However, as individuals reach the middle and high school years and puberty sets in, growth becomes rapid once again.

Social development is a very important aspect of children's lives throughout the school years.
Friendships and peer interactions take on different characteristics at each level of schooling. In addition, the influence that parents and peers have on children's decisions and actions changes throughout the school-age years. Gender also plays an important role in school age children's social development as children become more aware of their gender identities.

During the school-age years, children develop a better understanding of their emotions.
Throughout the school years, students develop and modify their own unique self-concept. Children learn how to deal with their own emotions as well as how to interpret the emotions of others.

During the school years, cognitive development undergoes many unique changes.
From preschool to high school, children's thinking becomes more complex, more abstract, and more efficient. At the same time, children are becoming language experts as they learn more about the language in which they are immersed.

Technology can be used to promote thinking, problem solving, and communication for elementary, middle school, and high school students.
Technology is a useful tool to incorporate within the classroom at any age level. However, it is very important to make sure that the technology that is being used matches the developmental level(s) of students in the classroom in order to be effective.