Thinkwell ® Video Lessons

Click a link below to launch a video lesson on that topic.

AN INTRODUCTION TO MATTER AND MEASUREMENT

An Introduction to Chemistry and the Scientific Method

An Introduction to Chemistry
The Scientific Method

Properties of Matter

States of Matter
A Word about Laboratory Safety
CIA Demonstration: Differences in Density Due to Temperature
Properties of Matter

Scientific Measurement

The Measurement of Matter
Precision and Accuracy
CIA Demonstration: Precision and Accuracy with Glassware
Significant Figures
Dimensional Analysis

Mathematics of Chemistry

Scientific (Exponential) Notation
Common Mathematical Functions

ATOMS, MOLECULES, AND IONS

Early Atomic Theory

Early Discoveries and the Atom
Understanding Electrons
Understanding the Nucleus

Atomic Structure

Mass Spectrometry: Determining Atomic Masses
Modern Atomic Structure
CIA Demonstration: Flame Colors

The Periodic Table

Creating the Periodic Table

Chemical Nomenclature

Describing Chemical Formulas
Naming Chemical Compounds
Organic Nomenclature

STOICHIOMETRY

Chemical Equations

An Introduction to Chemical Reactions and Equations
CIA Demonstration: Magnesium and Dry Ice
Balancing Chemical Equations

The Mole

The Mole and Avogadro's Number
Introducing Conversions of Masses, Moles, and Number of Particles

Solving Problems Involving Mass/Mole Relationships

Finding Empirical and Molecular Formulas
Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
Finding Limiting Reagents
CIA Demonstration: Self-Inflating Hydrogen Balloons
Theoretical Yield and Percent Yield
A Problem Using the Combined Concepts of Stoichiometry

REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

An Introduction to Solutions

Properties of Solutions
CIA Demonstration: The Electric Pickle
Concentrations of Solutions
Factors Determining Solubility

Reactions Involving Solutions

Precipitation Reactions
Acid-Base Reactions
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Stoichiometry Problems in Solutions

Acid-Base Titrations
Solving Titration Problems
Gravimetric Analysis

GASES

Gases and Gas Laws

Properties of Gases
Boyle's Law
Charles's Law
The Combined Gas Law
Avogadro's Law
CIA Demonstration: The Potato Cannon

The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases

The Ideal Gas Law
Partial Pressure and Dalton's Law
Applications of the Gas Laws
The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases
CIA Demonstration: The Ammonia Fountain

Molecular Motion of Gases

Molecular Speeds
Effusion and Diffusion

Behavior of Real Gases

Comparing Real and Ideal Gases

THERMOCHEMISTRY

An Introduction to Energy

The Nature of Energy
Energy, Calories, and Nutrition
The First Law of Thermodynamics
Work
Heat
CIA Demonstration: Cool Fire

Enthalpy

Heats of Reaction: Enthalpy
CIA Demonstration: The Thermite Reaction

Calorimetry

Constant Pressure Calorimetry
Bomb Calorimetry (Constant Volume)

Hess's Law and Enthalpies of Formation

Hess's Law
Enthalpies of Formation

MODERN ATOMIC THEORY

Electromagnetic Radiation and the Idea of Quantum

The Wave Nature of Light
Absorption and Emission
CIA Demonstration: Luminol
The Ultraviolet Catastrophe
The Photoelectric Effect
The Bohr Model
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Quantum Mechanics

The Wave Nature of Matter
Radial Solution to the Schrödinger Equation
Angular Solutions to the Schrödinger Equation

Atomic Orbitals

Atomic Orbital Size
Atomic Orbital Shapes and Quantum Numbers
Atomic Orbital Energy

ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS AND PERIODICITY

Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle

Understanding Electron Spin
Electron Shielding
Electron Configurations through Neon
Electron Configurations beyond Neon
Periodic Relationships

Periodicity

Periods and Atomic Size
Ionization Energy
Electron Affinity
An Introduction to Electronegativity

Group Trends

Hydrogen, Alkali Metals, and Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals and Nonmetals

CHEMICAL BONDING: FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS

Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonding

Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonding
Ionic Bonds
CIA Demonstration: Conductivity Apparatus - Ionic versus Covalent Bonds

Lewis Dot Structures

Lewis Dot Structures for Covalent Bonds
Predicting Lewis Dot Structures

Resonance Structures and Formal Charge

Resonance Structures
Formal Charge
Electronegativity, Formal Charge, and Resonance

Bond Properties

Bond Properties
Using Bond Dissociation Energies

MOLECULAR GEOMETRY AND BONDING THEORY

Molecular Geometry and the VSEPR Theory

Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion Theory
Molecular Shapes for Steric Numbers 2-4
Molecular Shapes for Steric Numbers 5 & 6
Predicting Molecular Characteristics Using VSEPR Theory

Valence Bond Theory and Molecular Orbital Theory

Valence Bond Theory
An Introduction to Hybrid Orbitals
Pi Bonds
Molecular Orbital Theory
Applications of the Molecular Orbital Theory
Beyond Homonuclear Diatomics
CIA Demonstration: The Paramagnetism of Oxygen

OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS

Looking In-Depth at Redox Reactions

Oxidation Numbers
Balancing Redox Reactions by the Oxidation Number Method
Balancing Redox Reactions Using the Half-Reaction Method
The Activity Series of the Elements
CIA Demonstration: The Reaction between Al and Br2

CONDENSED PHASES: LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

Intermolecular Forces

An Introduction to Intermolecular Forces and States of Matter
Intermolecular Forces

Physical Properties of Liquids

Properties of Liquids
CIA Demonstration: Boiling Water at Reduced Pressure
Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point
Molecular Structure and Boiling Point
Phase Diagrams
CIA Demonstration: Boiling Water in a Paper Cup

Solid State: Structure and Bonding

Types of Solids
CIA Demonstration: The Conductivity of Molten Salts
Crystal Structure
Calculating Atomic Mass and Radius from a Unit Cell
Crystal Packing

Ceramics

Ceramics and Glass
CIA Demonstration: Superconductivity

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS

Characterizing Solutions

Types of Solutions
Molarity and the Mole Fraction
Molality
Energy and the Solution Process

Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Solubility

Temperature Change and Solubility
Extractions
Pressure Change and Solubility

Colligative Properties

Vapor Pressure Lowering
Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression
Boiling Point Elevation Problem
Osmosis
Colligative Properties of Ionic Solutions

Colloids

Colloid Formation and Flocculation
CIA Demonstration: The Tyndall Effect

CHEMICAL KINETICS

Reaction Rates

An Introduction to Reaction Rates
Rate Laws: How the Reaction Rate Depends on Concentration
Determining the Form of a Rate Law

Orders of Reaction

First-Order Reactions
Second-Order Reactions
A Kinetics Problem

Temperature and Rates

The Collision Model
The Arrhenius Equation
Using the Arrhenius Equation

Reaction Mechanisms

Defining the Molecularity of a Reaction
Determining the Rate Laws of Elementary Reactions
Calculating the Rate Laws of Multistep Reactions
Steady State Kinetics

Catalysts

Catalysts and Types of Catalysts
A Word about Laboratory Safety
CIA Demonstration: Elephant Snot
CIA Demonstration: The Cobalt(II)-Catalyzed Reaction of Potassium Sodium Tartrate
CIA Demonstration: The Copper-Catalyzed Decomposition of Acetone

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

Principles of Chemical Equilibrium

The Concept of Equilibrium
The Law of Mass Action and Types of Equilibrium
Converting Between Kc and Kp

Using Equilibrium Constants

Approaching Chemical Equilbrium
Predicting the Direction of a Reaction
Strategies for Solving Equilibrium Problems
Solving Problems Far from Equilibrium
An Equilibrium Problem Using the Quadratic Equation

Shifting Chemical Equilibrium

Le Châtelier's Principle
The Effect of Changing Amounts on Equilibrium
The Effect of Pressure and Volume on Equilibrium
The Effects of Temperature and Catalysts on Equilibrium
CIA Demonstration: NO2/N2O4
CIA Demonstration: Shifting the Equilibrium of FeSCn2+

ACIDS AND BASES

Acid-Base Concepts

Arrhenius/Brřnsted-Lowry Definitions of Acids and Bases
Hydronium, Hydroxide, and the pH Scale

Acid and Base Strengths

Strong Acids and Bases
CIA Demonstration: Natural Acid-Base Indicators
Weak Acids
Weak Bases
Lewis Acids and Bases
Trends in Acid and Base Strengths

Polyprotic Acids

Examining Polyprotic Acids

Acid-Base Properties of Salts

Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions

EQUILIBRIUM IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

Reactions of Acids and Bases

Strong Acid-Strong Base and Weak Acid-Strong Base Reactions
Strong Acid-Weak Base and Weak Acid-Weak Base Reactions
The Common Ion Effect

Buffers

An Introduction to Buffers
CIA Demonstration: Buffers in Action
Acidic Buffers
Basic Buffers
The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation

Acid-Base Titration

Strong Acid-Strong Base Titration
CIA Demonstration: Barium Hydroxide-Sulfuric Acid Titration
Weak Acid-Strong Base Titration
Polyprotic Acid-Strong Base Titration
Weak Base-Strong Acid Titration
Acid-Base Indicators

Solubility Equilibria

The Solubility Product Constant
CIA Demonstration: Silver Chloride and Ammonia
Solubility and the Common Ion Effect
Fraction Precipitation
The Effects of pH on Solubility

Complex Ion Equilbria

The Formation of Complex Ions
Amphoteric Metal Hydroxides

INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC REACTIONS

Acid Strength in Organic Molecules

An Introduction to Reactivity
Bond Strengths
Inductive Effects
Hybridization Effects
Resonance Effects
Solvent Effects: Acid Dissociation versus Proton Affinity

Base Strength in Organic Molecules

A Review of Relationship between Acids and Conjugate Bases
Strengths of Organic Bases
Solvent Effects on Organic Base Strength

Lewis Acid and Base Reactions

Lewis Acids and the Formation of Acid-Base Adducts
Oxides as Lewis Acids

Introduction ot Electrophiles and Nuleophiles

Nucleophilic Substitution at sp3 Carbon
Nucleophilic Substitution at sp2 Carbon
Elimination Reactions
CIA Demonstration: Slime

THERMODYNAMICS

An Introduction to Thermodynamics

Spontaneous Processes

Entropy

Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Entropy and Temperature

Gibbs Free Energy and Free Energy Change

Gibbs Free Energy
Standard Free Energy Changes of Formation

Using Free Energy

Enthalpy and Entropy Contributions to K
The Temperature Dependence of K
Free Energy Away from Equilibrium

ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Principles of Electrochemistry

Reviewing Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Galvanic Cells

Electrochemical Cells
Electromotive Force
Standard Reduction Potentials
Using Standard Reduction Potentials
The Nernst Equation
Electrochemical Determinants of Equilbria

Batteries

Batteries
CIA Demonstration: The Fruit-Powered Clock

Corrosion

Corrosion and the Prevention of Corrosion

Electrolysis and Electrolytic Cells

Electrolytic Cells
The Stoichiometry of Electrolysis

NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY

Radioactivity

The Nature of Radioactivity
The Stability of Atomic Nuclei
Binding Energy

Rates of Disintegration

Rates of Disintegration Reactions
Radiochemical Dating

Nuclear Fission and Fusion

Nuclear Fission
Nuclear Fusion
Applications of Nuclear Chemistry

CHEMISTRY OF METALS

An Introduction to Metals

Metallurgical Processes
Band Theory of Conductivity
Intrinsic Semiconductors
Doped Semiconductors

Physical and Chemical Processes of Metals

The Alkali Metals
The Alkaline Earth Metals
Aluminum
CIA Demonstration: The Reaction between Al and Br2

TRANSITION METALS

Examining Transition Metals

Properties of Transition Metals
CIA Demonstration: Copper One-Pot Reactions

Coordination Compounds

Complexes and Ligands
Naming Coordination Compounds
Structures of Coordination Compounds and Isomers

Bonding in Coordination Compounds

Color and Transition Metals
Crystal Field Theory
Ligand Field Theory
Magnetic Properties and Spin

NONMETALS

An Introduction to Nonmetals and Hydrogen

General Properties of Nonmetals
Hydrogen

Group 14: Carbon and Silicon

General Properties of Carbon
Silicon

Group 15: Nitrogen and Phosphorous

Nitrogen
Phosphorous

Group 16: Oxygen and Sufur

Oxygen
CIA Demonstration: Creating Acid Rain
Sulfur

Group 17: The Halogens

Halogens
Aqueous Halogen Compounds

Group 18: The Noble Gases

Properties of Noble Gases

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Hydrocarbons

Alkanes
Alkenes and Alkynes
Isomers
Aromatic Hydrocarbons

The Functional Groups

Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines
Carbonyl-Containing Functional Groups

Organic Polymers

Organic Polymers
CIA Demonstration: The Synthesis of Nylon

BIOCHEMISTRY

Biological Molecules

Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates
Lipids

INSTRUCTIONAL LABORATORY DEMONSTRATIONS

Laboratory Techniques

CIA Demonstration: Laboratory Safety
CIA Demonstration: Chromatography
CIA Demonstration: Distillation
CIA Demonstration: Pipetting
CIA Demonstration: Dilutions
CIA Demonstration: Titrations
CIA Demonstration: Extractions
CIA Demonstration: Filtrations
CIA Demonstration: Weighing on an Analytical Balance
CIA Demonstration: Recrystallization