The extent to which consumers have the resources knowledge, intelligence, and money necessary to make an outcome happen.
The minimal level of stimulus intensity needed to detect a stimulus.
The likelihood that an item will be retrieved from long-term memory.
The more effort one puts forth in trying to communicate with an ethnic group, the more positive the reaction.
Learning how to adapt to a new culture.
The process by which a consumer comes to own an offering.
activities, interests, and opinions (AIOs)
The three components of lifestyles.
actual identity schemas
The set of multiple, salient identities that reflect our self-concept.
The way things actually are.
The extent to which the innovation can foster new styles.
Excessive behavior typically brought on by a chemical dependence.
additive difference model
Compensatory model in which brands are compared by attribute, two brands at a time.
A purchase of an innovation by an individual consumer or household.
aesthetic or hedonic innovation
An innovation tat appeals to our aesthetic pleasure seeking, and /or sensory needs.
A simple type of affective tactic where we simply remember our feelings for the product or service.
affective decision making
Decisions based on feelings and emotions.
How attitudes influence our feelings.
Expending emotional energy and heightened feelings regarding an offering or activity.
When consumers generate feelings and images in response to a message.
Tactics based on feelings.
Goals that stress mastery, self-assertiveness, self-efficacy, strength, assertiveness, and no emotion.
Developing an overall liking or disliking for each option in order to make a noncomparable decision.
ambiguity of information
A condition whereby decision options are hard to differentiate.
anchoring and adjustment process
Starting with an initial evaluation and adjusting it with additional information.
A conflict that occurs when a consumer must choose between two or more equally desirable options that fulfill different needs.
A conflict that occurs when a given behavior or outcome is seen as both desirable and undesirable because it satisfies some needs but fails to satisfy others.
aspirational reference group
Group that we admire and desire to be like.
associative reference group
Group to which we currently belong.
The process by which an individual allocates part of his or her mental activity to a stimulus.
A relatively global and enduring evaluation of an object, issue, person, or action.
How easily an attitude can be remembered.
How strongly we hold an attitude.
How long our attitude lasts.
How difficult it is to change an attitude.
How specific the attitude is to the behavior being predicted. 6
attitude toward the act (Aact)
How we feel about doing something.
attitude toward the ad (Aad)
Whether the consumer likes or dislikes an ad.
The adding of an inferior brand to a consideration, which increases the attractiveness of the dominant brand.
A source characteristic that evokes favorable attitudes if a source is physically attractive, likable, familiar, or similar to ourselves.
Attributes that are both salient and diagnostic.
Comparing brands, one attribute at a time.
Making noncomparable choices by making abstract representations of comparable attributes.
A theory of how individuals find explanations for events.
autobiographical or episodic memory
Knowledge we have about ourselves and our personal experiences.
Decision equally likely to be made by the husband or wife, but not by both.
Basing judgments on events that are easier to recall.
A conflict that occurs when the consumer must choose between two equally undesirable options.
Individuals born between 1946 and 1964.
A technique whereby consumers are attracted by a low price and then enticed to trade up to a more expensive item.
A fair exchange of preferences.
How often an event really occurs for all consumers.
A level of categorization below the superordinate category that contains objects in more refined categories.
What we do.
behavioral intention (BI)
What we intend to do.
When a message is different from what consumers believe.
An illegal market in which consumers pay often exorbitant amounts for items not readily available.
An organized activity in which consumers avoid purchasing products or services from a company whose policies or practices are seen as unfair or unjust.
A marketing strategy in which two companies' brand names are presented together on a single product.
A specialized group of consumers with a structured set of relationships involving a particular brand, fellow customers of that brand, and the product in use
A marketing strategy in which a firm that markets a product with a well-developed image uses the same brand name but in a different product category.
Easy recognition of a well-known brand.
A subset of salient and feeling-related associations stored in a brand schema.
Buying the same brand repeatedly because of a strong preference.
The set of associations that reflect the personification of the brand.
Evaluating one brand at a time.
The process of labeling or identifying an object. Involves relating what we perceive in our external environment to what we already know.
The attitude formation and change process when effort is high.
Simple rules of thumb used to make low effort decisions.
A group of items that can be processed as a unit.
Families with an average income in a particular class.
A successful innovation that has a lengthy product life cycle.
Producing a response to a stimulus by repeatedly pairing it with another stimulus that automatically produces this response.
According to this principle, individuals have a need to organize perceptions so that they form a meaningful whole.
The grouping of consumers according to common characteristics using statistical techniques.
An arrangement by which two brands form a partnership to benefit from the power of two.
The extent to which the group has the capacity to deliver rewards and sanctions.
The extent to which consumers prefer information to be presented in a simple or complex manner.
How attitudes influence our thoughts.
Interest in thinking about and processing information related to one's goal.
The process by which consumers combine items of information about attributes to reach a decision.
Thoughts we have in response to a communication.
Preferences for how information is received e.g., visually or verbally.
Goals that stress affiliation and fostering harmonious relations with others, submissiveness, emotionality, and home oriented.
Messages that make direct comparisons to competitors.
The consumer behavior of buying products or services to offset frustrations or difficulties in life.
Making up for lack of social contact or depression by eating.
A mental cost-benefit analysis model to make a decision.
Doing what the group or social influencer asks.
The process of deepening understanding. Involves using prior knowledge to understand more about what we have categorized.
An irresistible urge to perform an irrational consumption act.
Computerized Status Index (CSI)
A modern index used to determine social class through education, occupation, residence, and income.
Giving in on some points to get what one wants in other areas.
The extent to which a stimulus is capable of being imagined.
Tendency to recall information that reinforces or confirms our overall beliefs rather than contradicting them, thereby making our judgment or decision more positive than it should be.
The greater likelihood of being able to recall things consistent with our beliefs.
Doing what others in the group do.
A research technique to determine the relative importance and appeal of different levels of an offering's attributes.
A noncompensatory model that sets minimum cutoffs to reject "bad" options.
conjunctive probability assessment
Estimating the extent two events will occur together.
How attitudes influence our behavior.
The use of products as symbols of our personal connections to significant people, events, or experiences.
Consumer preservation of natural resources.
consideration evoked set
The subset of brands evaluated when making a choice.
The acquisition and display of goods and services to show off one's status.
Visibly buying products and services that one never uses.
The totality of consumers' decisions with respect to the acquisition, consumption, and disposition of goods, services, time, and ideas by human decision-making units [over time].
A personal storehouse of knowledge about products and services, shopping, and consumption experiences.
Protection and access to information in certain consumer-related areas that are guaranteed to consumers.
The process by which we learn to become consumers.
Activities of government, business, independent organizations, and consumers designed to protect the rights of consumers.
The influence of the decision situation on the decision-making process.
An innovation that has a limited effect on existing consumption patterns.
The formal statement a company must make to correct false beliefs.
The extent to which two or more associations linked to a schema go together.
Thoughts that disagree with the message.
Extent to which the source is trustworthy, expert, or has status.
The natural grouping of objects that reflect our culture.
Ideas or values that specify how aspects of our culture are organized and/or how they should be perceived or evaluated.
The typical or expected behaviors, norms, and ideas that characterize a group of people.
Activities that result in using less energy.
The practice of keeping customers by building long-term relationships.
For each attribute, the point at which a brand is rejected with a noncompensatory model.
Searching for patterns in the company database that offer clues to customer needs, preferences, and behaviors.
Consumers who are more likely to be influenced by price.
The weakening of nodes or links over time.
Marketing communications that leave consumers with information or beliefs that are incorrect or cannot be substantiated.
The initial reference point or anchor in the decision process.
Making a selection between options or courses of action.
Activities that use more efficient energy sources.
That which helps us discriminate among objects.
differential threshold/just noticeable difference ( j.n.d.)
The intensity difference needed between two stimuli before they are perceived to be different.
The percentage of the population that has adopted an innovation at a specific point in time.
The existence of a discrepancy between expectations and performance.
An offering that is so new that we have never known anything like it before.
The processing of information as words.
A noncompensatory model that sets acceptable cutoffs to find options that are "good."
The process by which a consumer parts with or gets rid of a possession / offering.
dissociative reference group
Group we do not want to emulate.
Rituals enacted at the disposition stage that are designed to wipe away all traces of our personal meaning in a product.
doctrine of foreseeability
The expectation that companies should be able to anticipate normal risky uses of a product/service.
A tendency to be resistant to change or new ideas.
Values that may apply to only a particular area of activities.
A technique designed to induce compliance by first asking an individual to comply with a very large and possibly outrageous request, followed by a smaller and more reasonable request.
Losing one's social standing.
Ads with characters, a plot, and a story.
The representation of a stimulus in two modalities e.g., pictures and words in memory.
Explains how attitudes toward the ad influence brand attitudes.
dynamically continuous innovation
An innovation that has a pronounced effect on consumption practices and often involves a new technology.
Status acquired later in life through achievements.
Very brief memory for things we hear.
Activities that result in more efficient energy usage.
Transferring information into long-term memory by processing it at deeper levels.
Similar to the lexicographic model but adds the notion of acceptable cutoffs.
Markets in which the social relationships among buyers and sellers change the way the market operates.
The use of products to symbolize membership in social groups.
Messages that elicit an emotional response.
Emotionally disposing of a possession.
encoding of evidence
Processing the information experienced.
Interest in an offering or activity over an extended period of time.
A theory that focuses on the fairness of exchanges between individuals, which helps in understanding consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
estimations of likelihood
Judging how likely it is something will occur.
Subcultures with a similar heritage and values.
A technique in which researchers observe how consumers behave in real-world surroundings.
A technique designed to induce compliance by asking individuals to do a very small favor ? one that is so small it almost does not qualify as a favor.
A widely used model that explains how attitudes form and change.
Beliefs about how a product/service will perform.
Memory for some prior episode achieved by active attempts to remember.
exponential diffusion curve
A diffusion curve characterized by rapid initial growth.
The process by which the consumer comes in physical contact with a stimulus.
exposure to evidence
Actually experiencing the product or service.
Roles that involve an indication of family norms.
The use of products as symbols to demonstrate our uniqueness ? how we stand out as different from others.
The nuclear family plus relatives such as grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins.
The process of collecting information from outside sources e.g., magazines, dealers, ads.
Options that are extreme on some attributes are less attractive than those with a moderate level of those attributes.
A successful innovation that has a very short product life cycle.
fairness of exchange
The perception that people's inputs are equal to their outputs in an exchange.
false objective claim
A claim made by a company that has no validity.
family life cycle
Different stages of family life depending on the age of the parents and how many children are living at home.
A successful innovation that has a moderately long and potentially cyclical product life cycle.
The degree to which we like or dislike something.
Messages that stress negative consequences.
The psychological experience of the motivated consumer. Includes psychological states such as interest, excitement, anxiety, passion, and engagement.
figure and ground
According to this principle, people interpret stimuli in the context of a background.
Risk associated with monetary investment in an offering.
A form of in-depth interview involving 8 to 12 people; a moderator leads the group and asks participants to discuss a product, concept, or other marketing stimulus.
A technique designed to induce compliance by getting an individual to agree first to a small favor, then to a larger one, and then to an even larger one.
Symbols that become so widely adopted that they lose their status.
Beliefs based simply on the number of supporting arguments or amount of repetition.
A new product, service, attribute, or idea that proved utilitarian benefits different from or better than existing alternatives.
Needs that motivate the search for products to solve consumption related problems.
Sources that control the flow of information.
Biological state of male or female.
Individuals born between 1965 and 1976.
Mini-population explosion from the children of baby boomers.
The first stage of gift giving, when we consider what to give someone.
A person's most enduring, strongly held, and abstract values that hold in many situations.
Things that are viewed as belonging in the same category because they serve the same goals.
Objectives that we would like to achieve.
The fact that category members vary in how well they represent a category.
Individuals over 65.
Rituals we engage in to bring out or maintain the best in special products.
The tendency to group stimuli to form a unified picture or impression.
Doing the same thing time after time.
The process in which a stimulus loses its attention-getting abilities by virtue of its familiarity.
An ad that creates positive or negative feelings.
Needs that relate to sensory pleasure.
The principle of pleasure seeking.
A simple rule of thumb used to make judgments or decisions.
hierarchy of effects
Sequential steps used in decision making involving thinking, then feeling, then behavior.
high-effort hierarchy of effects
A purchase of an innovation based on considerable decision-making effort.
People at the low end of the status hierarchy.
The overall similarity among members in the social system.
A technique that features a character in a TV show in ads.
A single person living alone or a group of individuals who live together in a common dwelling, regardless of whether they are related.
household decision roles
Roles that different members play in a household decision.
Decision made primarily by the male head-of-household.
Forming expectations about the product or service.
Testing out expectations through experience.
Very brief memory for things we see.
ideal identity schema
A set of ideas about how the identity would be indicated in its ideal form.
The way we want things to be.
When consumers think two things occur together when they actually do not.
Imagining an event in order to make a judgment.
The processing of information in sensory form.
Memory for things without any conscious attempt at remembering them.
An unexpected purchase based on a strong feeling.
Learning that occurs from repetition rather than from conscious processing.
The ?treatment? or the entity that researchers vary in a research project.
Options that are unacceptable when making a decision.
Options toward which consumers are indifferent.
The negative effect on a decision caused by having too much information.
The extent to which sources influence consumers simply by providing information.
Status that derives from parents at birth.
The recall of one attribute inhibiting the recall of another.
An offering that is perceived as new by consumers within a market segment and that has an effect on existing consumption patterns.
Roles that relate to tasks affecting the buying decision.
The values needed to achieve the desired end states such as ambition and cheerfulness.
integration of evidence
Combining new information with stored knowledge.
intensity of ethnic affiliation
How strongly people identify with their ethnic group.
That which causes us not to remember which features go with which brand or concept due to semantic networks being too closely aligned.
The process of recalling stored information from memory.
Estimating or evaluating the likelihood of an event.
judgments of goodness/badness
Evaluating the desirability of something.
Information we already have in memory.
The way in which knowledge is organized.
law of small numbers
The expectation that information obtained from a small number of people represents the larger population.
The extent to which the innovation follows established guidelines for what seems appropriate in the category.
A noncompensatory model that compares brands by attributes, one at a time.
A marketing strategy in which a firm sells the rights to the brand name to another company who will use the name on its product.
People's patterns of behavior.
List of Values (LOV)
A survey that measures nine principal values in consumer behavior.
locus of control
How people interpret why things happen (internal versus external)
long-term memory (LTM)
The part of memory where information is placed for later use; permanently stored knowledge.
A purchase of an innovation based on limited decision-making effort.
A consumer who has and communicates considerable marketplace information to others.
A study in which the effectiveness of one or more elements of the marketing mix is examined by evaluating sales of the product in an actual market e.g., a specific city.
Influence delivered from a marketing agent e.g., advertising, personal selling.
A social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others.
Information about products or brands communicated by either the marketer via ads, salespeople, brand symbols, packages, signs, prices, and so on or nonmarketing sources e.g., the media, word of mouth.
The idea that the source must be appropriate for the product/service.
Placing importance on money and material goods.
means-ends chain analysis
A technique that helps us understand how values link to attributes in products and services.
mere exposure effect
When familiarity leads to liking an object.
Primarily white-collar workers.
Inaccurate understanding of a message.
The extent to which consumers in the social system have positive attitudes toward change.
Consumers process information in a way that allows them to reach a particular conclusion they want to reach.
An inner state of arousal that denotes energy to achieve a goal.
multiattribute expectancy-value model
A type of brand-based compensatory model.
Buying two or more brands repeatedly because of a strong preference.
Strategies used to appeal to a variety of cultures at the same time.
An ad in which the brand is not identified until the end of the message.
A system set up by the National Advertising Division to self-regulate advertising messages.
The personality of a country.
need for cognition (NFC)
A trait that describes how much people like to think.
need for uniqueness (NFU)
The desire for novelty through the purchase, use, and disposition of products and services.
An internal state of tension caused by disequilibrium from an ideal/desired physical or psychological state.
negative word-of-mouth communication
The act of consumers saying negative things about a product or service to other consumers.
The process of making decisions from products or services from different categories.
Simple decision model in which negative information leads to rejection of the option.
Influence delivered from an entity outside a marketing organization; e.g., friends, family, the media.
normative choice tactics
Low elaboration decision making that is based on others' opinions.
How other people influence our behavior through social pressure.
Collective decisions about what constitutes appropriate behavior.
Father, mother, and children.
The extent to which the receiver accurately understands the message a sender intended to communicate.
A product, service, activity, or idea offered by a marketing organization to consumers.
A marketing message that presents only positive information.
A search that occurs regularly, regardless of whether the consumer is making a choice.
The ability of consumers to process an ad as they are viewing it.
The view that behavior is a function of the reinforcements and punishments received in the past.
An individual who acts as an information broker between the mass media and the opinions and behaviors of an individual or group.
optimal stimulation level (OSL)
The ideal level of stimulation in any situation.
optimal stimulation level (OSL)
The level of arousal that is most comfortable for an individual.
Families with an income higher than the average in their class.
Status symbols that start in the lower classes and move upward.
passive incidental learning
Low-level learning that occurs through repetition.
The extent to which the consumer is uncertain about the consequences of an action e.g., buying, using, or disposing of an offering.
The process by which incoming stimuli activate our sensory receptors eyes, ears, taste buds, skin, and so on.
The process by which stimuli are organized into meaningful units.
The measurement of whether the product/ service actually fulfills consumers' needs.
Uncertainty about whether the offering will perform as expected.
Tactics based on benefits, features, or evaluations of the brand.
Easily processed aspects of a message such as music, an attractive source or picture, or humor.
peripheral route to persuasion
Aspects other than key message arguments that are used to influence attitudes.
The attitude formation and change process when effort is low.
Something that has a direct bearing on the self and has potentially significant consequences or implications for our lives.
An internal characteristic that determines how individuals behave in various situations.
Physically disposing of an item.
physical or safety risk
The potential harm that an offering might pose to one's safety.
Rituals we engage in when we first acquire a product that help to make it "ours."
A deceptive practice in which a consumer receives a postcard that claims he or she has won a valuable prize but that is really a front for intensive selling pressure.
A feeling of anxiety over whether the correct decision was made.
Positive or negative emotions experienced while using the products or services.
A feeling that one has made the wrong purchase decision.
The nonconscious processing of stimuli in peripheral vision.
A search that occurs to aid a specific decision.
The second stage of gift giving, when we actually give the gift.
Tactics based on price or cost.
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first in a sequence.
Data originating from a researcher and collected to provide information relevant to a specific research project.
primary reference group
Group with whom we have physical face-to-face interaction.
Activation of a node in memory, often without conscious awareness.
The perceived difference between an actual and an ideal state.
product life cycle
A concept that suggests that products go through an initial introductory period followed by periods of sales growth, maturity, and decline.
Things that are ordinary and hence have no special power.
The intensity of stimuli that causes them to stand out relative to the environment.
The best example of the category.
A description of consumers on the basis of their psychological and behavioral characteristics.
Risk associated with the extent to which the offering fits with the way consumers perceive themselves.
The exaggerated claims made by companies that are not generally believed by consumers.
Doing the opposite of what the individual or group wants us to do.
The ability to retrieve information from memory.
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes last in a sequence.
The process by which information is remembered via simple repetition without active rehearsal.
The process of determining whether a stimulus has or has not been encountered before.
A group of people we compare ourselves to for information regarding behavior, attitudes, or values.
Feedback from others that tells us whether we are fulfilling the role correctly.
The final stage of gift giving, when we reevaluate the relationship based on the gift-giving -experience.
The process of actively reviewing material in an attempt to remember it.
Benefits in an innovation superior to those found in existing products.
To give a brand or company a new and/or different image from the image it had before.
Making a judgment by simply comparing a stimulus to the category prototype or exemplar.
A nonprofit organization that sponsors research on topics relevant to the foundation's goals.
A desire not to buy the innovation, even in the face of pressure to do so.
Interest in certain decisions and behaviors.
The process of remembering.
Stimulus that facilitates a node's activation in memory.
Rokeach Value Survey (RVS)
A survey that measures instrumental and terminal values.
role acquisition function
The use of products as symbols to help us feel more comfortable in a new role.
People, things, and places that are set apart, revered, worshiped, and treated with great respect.
Attributes that are "top of mind" or more important.
The feeling that results when consumers make a positive evaluation or feel happy with their decision.
Finding a brand that satisfies a need even though the brand may not be the best brand.
The set of associations linked to a concept.
A special type of schema that represents knowledge of a sequence of events.
searching by attribute
Comparing brands on attributes, one at a time.
searching by brand
Collecting information on one brand before moving to another.
Data collected for some other purpose that is subsequently used in a research project.
secondary reference group
Group with whom we do not have direct contact.
Our mental view of who we are.
Relating a message to one's own experience or self-image.
Knowledge about an entity that is detached from specific episodes.
semantic or associative network
A set of associations in memory that are linked to a concept.
Those who actively look for variety.
Sensory experiences stored temporarily in memory.
A person's preference toward certain behaviors.
Leading consumers through a series of steps to create a desired response.
short-term memory STM
The portion of memory where incoming information is encoded or interpreted in light of existing knowledge.
Beliefs based on peripheral cues.
Temporary interest in an offering or activity, often caused by situational circumstances.
Consumers forget the source of a message more quickly than they forget the message.
social class fragmentation
The disappearance of class distinctions.
social class hierarchy
The grouping of members of society according to status high to low.
social comparison theory
A theory that proposes that individuals have a drive to compare themselves to other people.
Information by and pressures from individuals, groups, and the mass media that affect how a person behaves.
The extent to which an innovation can be observed or the extent to which having others observe it has social cachet.
Potential harm to one's social standing that may arise from buying, using, or disposing of an offering.
source derogations SDs
Thoughts that discount or attack the source of the message.
spreading of activation
Strong semantic links between concepts.
S-shaped diffusion curve
A diffusion curve characterized by slow initial growth followed by a rapid increase in diffusion.
When consumers are consistent across indicators of social class income, education, occupation, etc..
Trends that start in the lower and middle classes and move upward.
The inability of children to reach their parents' level of social status.
Products or services that tell others about someone's social class standing.
A research method by which consumers are asked to tell stories about product acquisition, usage, or disposition experiences. These stories help marketers gain insights into consumer needs and identify the product attributes that meet these needs.
A presentation that features the best or central merits of an offering in a convincing manner.
Reflects what we think we know, whether or not it is -accurate.
subjective norms (SN)
How others feel about us doing something.
The activation of sensory receptors by stimuli presented below the perceptual threshold.
A level of categorization below the basic level that contains objects in very finely differentiated categories.
Having to prove questionable claims.
The broadest level of category organization containing different objects that share few associations but are still members of the category.
support arguments (SAs)
Thoughts that agree with the message.
A written instrument that asks consumers to respond to a predetermined set of research questions.
A product, service, attribute, or idea that has new social meaning.
Needs that relate to how we perceive ourselves, how we are perceived by others, how we relate to others, and the esteem in which we are held by others.
External signs that we use to express our identity.
Decision made jointly by the husband and wife.
An orderly classification of objects, with similar objects in the same category. 5
A highly desired end states such as social recognition and pleasure.
theory of reasoned action TORA
A model that provides an explanation of how, when, and why attitudes predict behavior.
The extent to which a close, intimate relationship connects people.
Uncertainties over the length of time consumers must invest in buying, using, or disposing of the offering.
The extent to which an association or link is strongly or weakly linked to a concept in memory.
A professional organization made up of marketers in the same industry.
Ads that try to increase emotional involvement with the product or service.
The extent to which an innovation can be tried on a limited basis before it is adopted.
Trends that start in the upper classes and then are copied by lower classes.
When consumers believe a statement simply because it has been repeated a number of times.
A marketing message that presents both positive and negative information.
Families below the average income in their class.
The aristocracy, new social elite, and the upper-middle class.
Raising one's status level.
The process by which a consumer uses an offering.
Using products in new ways.
utilitarian functional dimension
An ad that is informative.
Whether information about something is good positive valence or bad negative valence.
The grouping of consumers by common values.
Our total set of values and their relative importance.
Enduring beliefs about what is good or appropriate
Values and Life Style Survey (VALS)
A psychographic tool that measures demographic, value, attitude, and lifestyle variables.
The entity that is studied or that varies in a research project. In a study on how humor in ads influences attitudes toward a brand, one variable might be the level of humor in the ads.
Trying something different.
Seeking information simply for stimulation.
Online consumer-to-consumer communication that supports a particular offering.
Becoming bored with a stimulus.
The stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different.
Decision made primarily by the female head-of-household.
word of mouth
Information about products or services that is communicated verbally.
Primarily blue-collar workers.
Individuals age 50 to around 65.