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Author Guidelines

This glossary includes terms that are used in this guide or that you may hear from Houghton Mifflin personnel in the course of preparing your book. It is not meant to be an exhaustive list of terms used in the publishing industry.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M |
N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

acknowledgments A section in the preface of the book in which the author acknowledges the people who contributed to the book; for example, colleagues, reviewers, student assistants, typists, secretaries, and particular people on the publishing staff who made special contributions to the project.

alignment The arrangement of elements so that lines drawn along their respective edges would coincide to form a single straight line; for example, captions are often aligned with one edge of the photo.

art proofs Copies of final artwork sent to the author for review. If any corrections are needed, one set of proofs showing revisions will be returned to the artist.

art specifications (specs) Original manuscript artwork prepared by the author for the artist to use as a model when drawing the final art. They should include any explicit instructions needed to render the art accurately.

author's alterations (AAs) Changes made by the author, or on the author's behalf, after the manuscript has been set. Charges for these changes that exceed a certain percentage of the cost of composition will be deducted from the author's royalties.

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backing page The print on the back side of a page; for example, p. 2 backs up p. 1, and vice versa.

bad break Division of a word on the wrong syllable at the end of a line or division of a paragraph so that only one line, or part of a line, carries over to the next page. (See widow)

baseline The imaginary line that runs along a line of type touching the bottom of each letter.

bibliography A list of reference works (books, periodical articles, etc.) that relate to the material covered in the text. It usually appears at the end of the book or chapter.

1. The type of cover a book has; that is, a soft cover (also called paperback) or a hard cover (also called case- or clothbound).
2. The method by which the pages of the book are fastened together and to the cover.

bleed Positioning a design element, such as a photo, so that part of it is cut off when the pages are trimmed, making it appear to run off the edge of the page.

blues One type of final proof made from page negatives and called blues because the images usually appear in a blue color. This is the last stage of proof before printing plates are made and thus the last point at which anything in the book can be changed.

body The text of the book, as opposed to the front matter and end matter.

body type The type style and size that is used for the main text of the book, as opposed to the headings, titles, etc. (cf. display type)

bound book date (BBD) The day that the first bound copies of the book are scheduled to ship from the printer.

braces Curved inclusion symbols ({ }).

brackets Squared-off inclusion symbols ([ ]).

broadside An element, such as a figure or a table, that is too wide to fit on the page and is therefore placed sideways on the page. The left side of a broadside table or figure is at the bottom of the book page.

broken letter An imperfectly reproduced letter that looks broken as printed.

built-up fraction A fraction in which the numbers are set in the same type size as the text and one above the other so that the fraction occupies two lines of type vertically; for example, . (cf. case fraction)

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camera-ready copy
1. Any material that is ready to be photographed; the first step in making printing plates.
2. Text that is ready for the printer without the steps of copyediting or composition.

caption The explanation or comment that accompanies a figure or table. It includes the number and title of the element, if any, and sometimes a credit line.

caret A proofreader's symbol (^) indicating precisely where in a line of type a correction, alteration, or addition should be made.

case The cover of a clothbound book. (See binding)

case fraction A fraction cast as one piece, using digits smaller than the letters in the font it is designed to go with so that it is the height of one line of type. Most fonts contain case fractions for only the most common fractions; for example, . (cf. built-up fraction)

castoff An estimate of the final length of the book made from the manuscript or galley proofs.

chapter opening The first page of the chapter; also, the display type for the chapter-opening page, usually consisting of the chapter number and title.

character Any letter or punctuation mark that occupies horizontal space on a line. Spaces between words are also counted as characters.

character count The number of characters in a unit of manuscript or composed type.

coated paper Paper coated with a substance (usually finely milled clay) to give it a very smooth surface. It is used for printing that requires very high quality and accuracy of detail; for example, four-color photographs.

colophon A company's symbol or logo--Houghton Mifflin's colophon is

color printing Use of more than one color ink in printing a book.

two-color printing The use of black and one other color. The second color may be used for selected headings, screens on combination art, etc., as specified by the book designer. For each page that has both colors, two negatives and two printing plates are printed over one another in perfect register.

four-color printing The use of four colors--yellow, cyan (blue), magenta, and black--to reproduce full-color photographs. It requires shooting four separate negatives, one for each color. The paper must be passed through the press four times so that the negatives are printed over one another. When printed in perfect register, the process creates art that looks exactly as it does in reality.

composition The process of converting a manuscript into type. There are four basic steps:
(1) keyboarding, (2) producing readable copy (computerized typesetting systems such as Quark XPress do both at the same time), (3) paging, and (4) producing final, corrected copy.

compositor (typesetter) The company that performs the composition process.

contrast The difference in brightness between the lightest and darkest areas of a photograph or other type of art.

copy Any type of material used in a book, either original manuscript and sketches or set type and drawn artwork.

copyediting Reading a manuscript to check and correct punctuation, syntax, style, and accuracy, as necessary, and typemarking the manuscript for typesetting.

copyfitting In galleys or page proofs, replacing deleted material with copy that will occupy the same space so as to keep the resetting of lines to a minimum.

copyright Legal protection of a work giving the holder of the copyright the exclusive right to reproduce or authorize others to reproduce all or part of the work--essentially, ownership of the work.

copyright notice A statement, usually on the page following the title page, consisting of three essential elements:
1. The term "copyright," "copr.," or
2. Year of copyright
3. The name of the copyright owner
For example, Copyright 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

corrigenda Corrections assembled after the publication of a book for implementation at a later printing.

cover The two hinged parts of a book binding, front and back, and the spine that joins them. (See also binding)

credit line An acknowledgment giving the source of borrowed material. It may include a copyright notice and an indication of who granted permission to use the material.

cropping Removing part of a photo or piece of line art so that only a portion of the original will be reproduced.

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display type Type that is meant to be more prominent than the regular text type. It may be set in a larger size, a different face, boldface, or on a line by itself. (cf. body type)

drop folio A page number, or folio, that is placed at the foot of the page. It is often used on opening pages, on which a folio in the normal position would detract from the aesthetic appeal of the page.

drop out Printing in which type and background are reversed so that the word or design is the area not printed.

drop ship To ship directly from the printer to a customer, such as a university bookstore, instead of to the publisher's warehouse.

dummy A mock-up of the book showing how the elements will be laid out on each page. Uncorrected galleys are cut apart and pasted on sheets that are the same size as the final pages; space is allowed for figures, captions, etc. The compositor uses the dummy as a model for making pages.

duotone A photograph that has been printed in two colors instead of in black and white; one color is used for the lighter tone ranges and the other for the darker.

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editor's alterations (EAs) Corrections or changes to typeset material for which the publisher is responsible.

ellipsis Three dots (separated by letterspaces) inserted in material to indicate a deletion.

em A unit of measurement equal to the width of the capital M in the size of type being used; for example, in 10-point type an em is 10 points wide.

em dash A dash the length of an em, set with a narrower stroke than that used for a hyphen; used mainly to indicate a break in thought; written .(cf. en dash)

en A unit of measurement equal to the width of the capital N in the face being used and half the width of an em; also called a "nut," to avoid confusion with the em; written .

en dash A dash the length of an en, used mostly for elided numbers, as in ranges of years, and in place of a hyphen where hyphenation would be ambiguous, as in the case of a prefix attached to an open compound. (cf. em dash)

end matter Any material that follows the main body of text--for example, bibliography, glossary, reference tables and charts, and indexes. (cf. body, front matter)

endpapers A sheet, half of which is pasted over the inside front and back covers of a casebound book and half of which is left free to form the first leaf of the book. It may be left blank or printed with maps, reference tables, or whatever is desired.

epigraph A short quotation printed at the beginning of a section of text; often at the beginning of a chapter, between the title and the text.

extract A long section of quoted material, often set as a block quotation and in a way that distinguishes it from regular text; for example, using small type, italic, or indention.

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f&gs Printed pages folded and gathered in signatures of 16 or 32 pages and trimmed to the size they will be in the final book. (See signature)

fair use The use of a small portion of a copyrighted work in such a way that it does not threaten the value of the work from which it was borrowed and, therefore, does not require permission. Fair use depends on such factors as the amount of material being borrowed, how it is being used, and the nature and length of the work from which it was taken.

figure An illustration in the book including line art, photos, and combinations.

file In computer terminology, any body of related digitally stored information, such as the chapters of a book.

floppy disk A flexible plastic disk that, when inserted into a computer, provides a program instructing a computer what to do with stored data, the data itself, or both.

flush Aligning with; for example, "flush left" means aligning with the left edge of the type block.

folio Page number.

font All the letters, numbers, and symbols for a specific size of a typeface.

foreword An introduction to or commentary on the book written by someone other than the author. It is usually placed just before the preface.

four-color printing. See color printing.

front matter The material preceding the main body of text. It includes the title and copyright pages, preface and table of contents, and sometimes a foreword, dedication, and list of illustrations or maps. (cf. body, end matter)

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galley proofs The typeset proof before it is made up into pages.

glossy print A photograph with a shiny surface; the ideal shooting copy for producing halftones. (cf. matte finish)

gutter The inner margins of two facing pages.

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half-title page The page containing only the title of the book; precedes the title page or the body of the text.

halftone A printed reproduction of a black-and-white photograph.

hardside The term used by many college publishers to refer to the editorial department that handles science, math, computer science, and sometimes business books. (cf. softside)

headband A decorative strip of cloth glued to each end of the spine of a casebound book to camouflage the edges of the signatures and blend them into the cover.

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illustration Any type of art--photo, line art, or combination--that accompanies the text of a book. (See also figure)

input To enter information of any kind into a computer; for example, keyboarding the manuscript, the first stage in the composition process.

insert A small section placed in between signatures of a book; for example, most often, a group of color illustrations printed on coated paper.

ISBN (International Standard Book Number) A code number that is assigned to a book for purposes of identification and record keeping. The first four digits designate the language and publisher; the remaining six digits are unique to the specific book. The ISBN is usually printed on the back cover of the book in the lower right-hand corner.

italic type A variation of the basic roman type in which letters slant to the right; commonly used for emphasis and particular elements in the design of a book, such as headings. (cf. roman type)

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jacket A paper cover that wraps around the case on some clothbound books.

justify To adjust spacing between words in each line of type so that they all align on the right margin as well as on the left. (cf. ragged right)

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keyboarding The retyping of the manuscript by the compositor; the first stage in typesetting.

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label A word or symbol appearing in an illustration as part of the illustration. (cf. caption)

lamination A plastic coating placed over a sheet or cover to increase resistance to wear.

layout A designer's rendering of how the printed and illustrative material should appear.

leaders Dots set on the baseline between two vertical columns so that the reader's eye is directed from one column across to the correct line in the other column; for example, leaders can be used to join chapter titles and page numbers in a table of contents.

leading The amount of extra space between lines of type.

legend A key giving the meaning of symbols on a map, graph, chart, or diagram.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number A number that the Library of Congress assigns to a book for cataloging purposes. Many public and university libraries use this as the call number for identifying, shelving, and cataloging their books (supplements to text, however, do not have Library of Congress numbers).

line art An illustration in which the effect is obtained by the use of lines or combinations of lines.

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makeup Separating galleys into pages and adding artwork, photos, captions, running heads and folios, etc.

master proof The set of proofs that is returned to the compositor with all necessary corrections indicated.

matte finish A dull finish sometimes used for photo prints. (cf. glossy print)

measure The width of the type block, measured in picas.

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negative (neg) A film image on which the areas that were dark on the original copy are light and vice versa.

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opacity The degree to which paper prevents what is printed on one side from showing through to the other side; the greater the opacity, the less the show-through.

opaque To cover a clear area of a negative with a substance that will block out light and thus not allow the area to print.

overlay A sheet of clear or translucent material containing components of a piece of combination art (such as areas to be screened). It is taped onto a piece of final art (at one edge only) so that it can be checked for accuracy and folded out to be photographed separately.

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page proofs Printouts or photocopies showing each page with text and figures in place.

paste-up The process of preparing mechanicals by affixing camera-ready copy to boards in correct position in preparation for photographing.

patch A revised edition consisting predominantly of previous-edition material and only a small amount of newly set material. A true patch involves adding and deleting an identical amount of material on each page without changing page makeup, whereas a patch remake involves remaking pages.

penalty copy Manuscript that is so difficult to read or heavily edited that the compositor charges an additional fee beyond the standard cost of typesetting.

permission The formal and legal authorization required to reprint copyrighted material.

photo researcher A person who, working with the author's photo list and the project editor, procures the photos for the book and handles photo permissions.

pica A unit of measure used in publishing and printing equal to approximately of an inch. (See point)

plagiarism Copying or paraphrasing another author's work and claiming it as one's own.

point A unit of measure equal to approximately of a pica or of an inch.

point size The size of a typeface, measured in points; a common size used for text is 10-point.

positive Film on which the areas that will eventually print are black and the nonprinting areas are clear.

press run The actual printing of all the copies of a particular printing of a book.

printer's errors (PEs) Mistakes or problems for which the compositor or printer is responsible. (cf. editor's alterations, author's alterations

proof A reproduction that shows the components of a book (text, art, etc.) so that they can be checked for quality and accuracy.

proofreader's marks A set of standard symbols used by proofreaders to indicate corrections to be made.

proofreading Checking of proofs for quality and accuracy.

public domain Material that is not under copyright and can therefore be used without permission; normally, however, a source citation is given.

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ragged right Material set without additional wordspacing so that the lines vary in length, resulting in a right margin that does not align vertically. (cf. justify)

recto A right-hand page. (cf. verso)

references A list of the sources that are quoted or paraphrased in the text; normally given at the end of the chapter or book.

registration In film composition or artwork with overlays, the correct alignment of two or more elements that will be printed on the same sheet.

remake An instruction to the compositor to change page makeup in some way; for example, to move lines from one page to another.

reprint A new impression or press run of an edition of a book. It may include minor corrections made since the previous printing. (cf. revised edition)

repro (reproduction proof) Positive-image, high-quality camera copy that the printer photographs to make printing plates.

revised edition An edition of a book incorporating substantive changes. (cf. reprint)

revised proof Proof incorporating corrections requested in page proof.

roman type The standard face in a given font, with vertical letters. It is generally used for regular text. (cf. italic type)

run in To set type continuously, without breaking to begin a new line or indenting a paragraph.

running head Words set at the top of the page to give the reader information about the content of the page, such as the title of the book, part or chapter title, or current first-level head.

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sample pages Proofs that show all of the design elements in the manuscript, specified by the designer; essentially, a preview of what the book will look like. They generally do not show the correct text and may not read consecutively.

sans serif (gothic) A typeface designed without serifs. (See serif)

screen A grid pattern or dot structure on film or glass used to produce shaded areas in photographs or line art.

serif A small crossline at the top or bottom of a letter designed to make the letter easier to read.

sheet-fed press A printing press that accepts individual sheets of paper. (cf. web-fed press)

shrink-wrap To package books in clear plastic film to protect them from moisture, warping, and other damage.

side head A text heading set in the margin beside the text. It is often set to align with the first line of a paragraph.

signature A section of a book (usually 16 or 32 pages) that was printed as a single piece of paper and then folded and trimmed so that the pages are in order.

silhouette To mask out a portion of a photo or piece of art and reproduce the remainder.

sinkage The amount of vertical space allowed between two design elements or between the top of the type block and the first element; for example, there is often a fixed amount of sinkage between a chapter opener and the first line of text.

sizing An instruction by the designer or dummier to the compositor or printer about how much to reduce or enlarge a photo or piece of line art.

softside The term used by many college publishers to refer to the editorial department that handles humanities and social science books. (cf. hardside)

specs (specifications) A set of instructions written by the book designer that tells the compositor how to set the book. This includes typefaces and sizes, spacing, and display heads.

spine The edge of the book where the pages are attached to each other and to the front and back covers.

spread A left and right page that face each other across the gutter.

stet An instruction to set as it originally appeared; for example, if a word was deleted and then marked "stet," it would be reinstated in the copy.

style sheet A list, usually prepared by the copyeditor, showing any decisions made concerning possibly controversial issues; for example, how certain words or phrases are spelled, hyphenated, or capitalized.

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table A presentation of material in columns and rows, allowing for efficient comparison among them.

tearsheet A page torn out of a printed book or periodical for use in the manuscript. It should be mounted on 8-by-11-inch paper and inserted in the manuscript.

tip-in A page or group of pages inserted between signatures and glued to the signature on either side.

transpose To reverse the positions of two elements; abbreviated "tr." (See proofreader's marks)

trim size The dimensions of the pages in the finished book, measured in inches.

turn line The material that must be carried over to the next line below.

type code A series of symbols that function as shorthand for the complete set of specs for each element on the manuscript. (See typemarking)

typeface A particular design or style of type.

typemarking The process of coding each design element in the manuscript with the correct symbol so that the compositor will know how to set it; normally done by the copyeditor. (See type code)

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upsize Drawn or set large; for example, art is commonly rendered upsize and then reduced when it is photographed by the compositor or printer.

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verso A left-hand page. (cf. recto)

1. An effect in which the edges of a photo gradually fade out.
2. A short, scene-setting story at the beginning of a chapter.

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web-fed press A press that prints a continuous roll (web) or paper. (cf. sheet-fed press)

widow A single line of less-than-full measure at the top of the page. It is considered unattractive and should be avoided whenever possible.

wordspacing The space between words on a line. It is controlled by a typesetter, who can make it tight, loose, standard (for ragged-right designs), or variable (for justified designs).

wraparound Any design element that is shaped to fit around another; for example, text can be set so that it surrounds a small illustration on three sides.

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