Personality Theories, 6e | Glossary |
A-B-C theory of personality
In Ellis's rational emotive behavior therapy, the theory that a highly charged emotional consequence (C) is caused not by a significant activation event (A), but by the individual's belief system (B).
In Ellis's theory, a dogmatic, unrealistic demand placed on oneself.
A nonjudgmental recognition of oneself, others, and the world.
In Jung's psychotherapy, a method for getting in touch with the archetypes.
The arousal of emotions in conjunction with cognitions.
Bandura's view of persons as agents of experience.
Sanskrit for the storehouse consciousness, the last of the eight consciousnesses.
In Horney's theory, a state in which the real self and the idealized self are disjunct.
In Jungian therapy, an analytical method whereby one focuses repeatedly on an element and gives multiple associations to it.
One of Freud's psychosexual stages, in which the major source of pleasure and conflict is the anus.
The school of psychology founded by Carl Jung.
Pali for non-selfness, the lack of a permanent separate self, one of the three characteristics of existence in Buddhism.
The presence of both masculine and feminine qualities in an individual and the ability to realize both potentials.
Pali for impermanence and transiency, one of the three characteristics of existence according to the Buddha.
In Jung's theory, an archetype representing the feminine side of the male personality.
In Jung's theory, an archetype representing the masculine side of the female personality.
An emotional state characterized by a vague fear or premonition that something undesirable may happen. In May's theory, the apprehension cued off by a threat to some value that the individual holds as essential to his or her existence as a person. In Sullivan's theory, any painful feeling or emotion that may arise from organic needs or social insecurity.
In Jung's theory, a universal thought form or predisposition to perceive the world in certain ways.
Evaluation or measurement.
Sanskrit for soul, self, or ego.
A theory developed by Bowlby concerning the tendency to bond with other people and experience distress following separation and loss.
A positive or negative feeling toward an object. a) In Jung's theory, a basic psychotype. b) In Cattell's theory, a surface dynamic trait.
In Fromm's theory, a value system whose source lies outside the individual.
In Fromm's theory, a way of escaping from freedom by adhering to a new form of submission or domination.
Self-love. In Freud's theory, the child's sexual activity.
In Beck's theory, involuntary, unintentional, preconscious thoughts that are difficult to regulate.
In Fromm's theory, a way of escaping from freedom by adopting the personality proffered by one's culture.
In Beck's theory, a personality dimension characterized by independence.
In Kohut's theory, an ideal self with qualities of self-esteem and self-confidence.
autonomy versus shame and doubt
Erikson's psychosocial stage, corresponding to Freud's anal stage, in which the child faces the task of developing control over his or her body and bodily activities.
Containing its own goal, an activity done for its own sake.
In Adler's theory, people who try to escape life's problems and who engage in little socially constructive activity.
In Horney's theory, feelings of insecurity in which the environment as a whole is dreaded because it is seen as unrealistic, dangerous, unappreciative, and unfair.
In Horney's theory, all of the negative factors in the environment that can provoke insecurity in a child.
In Lazarus's theory, an examination of the seven modalities, behavior, affect, sensation, imagery, cognition, interpersonal relationships, and drugs, that make up human personality.
basic needs therapy
Therapeutic procedures that seek to meet the primary needs of people.
In Horney's theory, fundamental modes of interaction with the world.
Beck Depression Inventory
An instrument developed by Beck to measure depression.
The activity of an organism. a) In learning theory, a response to stimuli. b) In Rogers's theory, the goal-directed attempt of the organism to meet its needs as it perceives them.
Study of the cause of individual differences in terms of heredity.
Michel's view that behavior is determined by the specific situation.
A form of therapy that applies the principles of learning to achieve changes in behavior.
In Rotter's theory, a variable that refers to the likelihood that a particular behavior will occur.
a) A form of therapy that aims to eliminate symptoms of illness through learning new responses. b) In Ellis's theory, helping clients change maladaptive patterns of behavior and their cognition.
A movement in psychology founded by John Watson, who suggested that psychologists should focus their attention on the study of overt behavior.
In Fromm's theory, a way of life that depends solely on the fact of existence.
Five primary factors that typically surface from personality questionnaires and inventories: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
In Wilson's theory, an intense need to belong to the rest of the living world.
In Fromm's theory, a character orientation that is synonymous with the productive orientation.
Eysenck's approach to personality, which emphasizes biological and genetic factors as well as social and environmental ones.
A term used by Maslow to refer to being needs that arise from the organism's drive to self-actualize and fulfill its potential.
Sanskrit for "enlightenment being," a person who has vowed not to accept final liberation from suffering until all sentient beings are liberated; the ideal of the Mahayana tradition.
In Allport's theory, a propriate function that entails coming to know one's body limits.
Zen practiced for a profit, such as stress management or increased mental health.
In Kernberg's theory, patients with oral tendencies but also powerful aggressive tendencies.
A multimodal technique used by counselors to deliberately begin work in terms of their client's preferred modality.
"Awake" or "enlightened one." One who has fully awakened to the Turth.
Acronym for Mischel and Shoda's cognitive affective personality system.
In Allport's theory, a personal disposition so pervasive that almost every behavior of an individual appears to be influenced by it.
In Freud's theory, the child's fear of losing the penis.
An emotional release that occurs when an idea is brought to consciousness and allowed expression.
In Allport's theory, a highly characteristic tendency of an individual.
central relational paradox
The phenomenon by which people who have experienced trouble in relationships continue to try to make new connections but are hindered in doing so.
In Sheldon's theory, a component of temperament characterized by a predominance of restraint, inhibition, and the desire for concealment.
One of Hippocrates' temperaments, referring to an individual who tends to be irascible and violent.
A form of learning in which a response becomes associated with a previously neutral stimulus.
A therapeutic technique developed by Rogers that focuses attention on the person seeking help.
Creating a genetic twin of an individual.
A concept of personality that admits little or nothing new from outside the organism to influence or change it in any significant way.
The process of knowing.
In Beck's theory, a person's awareness.
The ability to perceive differences in the way in which one construes other people.
In Beck's theory, systematic errors in reasoning.
A field that concentrates on how mental activities occur in the brain.
Ways in which we experience the world and relate to others in the course of personality development.
Theories of personality that emphasize cognitive processes such as thinking and judging.
In Ellis's theory, showing clients how to recognize their "should" and "must" thoughts, how to separate rational from irrational beliefs, and how to accept reality. In Beck's theory, a set of well-defined therapeutic techniques that seeks to remove systematic biases in thinking.
In Beck's theory, the depressed individual has a negative view of the self, the world, and the future.
One of the criteria for judging philosophical statements: the quality or state of logical consistency.
In Jung's theory, a shared, transpersonal unconscious consisting of potential ways of being human.
In Allport's theory, hypothetical traits that permit us to compare individuals according to certain shared dimensions.
A criterion for evaluating rival hypotheses: the agreement of the hypothesis with other previously well-established information.
One of the criteria for evaluating philosophical statements: the quality of appealing to someone with a driving force.
Making up for or overcoming a weakness.
In Jung's theory, an effort to complement one's conscious side and speak for the unconscious.
In Adler's theory, safeguarding tendencies that ward off feelings of inferiority.
In Jung's theory, an organized group of thoughts, feelings, and memories about a particular concept.
One of the criteria for evaluating philosophical statements: the quality of having a broad scope or range and depth of coverage.
conditional positive regard
In Rogers's theory, positive regard that is given only under certain circumstances.
A response that becomes associated with a stimulus through learning.
A previously neutral stimulus that becomes associated with a response.
conditions of worth
In Rogers's theory, stipulations imposed by other people indicating when an individual will be given positive regard.
a) In Freud's theory, the basic incompatibility that exists among the id, ego, superego, and the external world. b) In Dollard and Miller's theory, frustration that arises from a situation in which incompatible responses occur at the same time.
In Rogers's theory, the state of harmony that exists when a person's symbolized experiences reflect the actual experiences of his or her organism.
In relational/cultural theory, the basic origins of growth and development.
In Freud's theory, a subsystem of the superego that refers to the capacity for self-evaluation, criticism, and reproach.
In Freud's theory, the thoughts, feelings, and wishes that a person is aware of at any given moment.
Agreement among observers about phenomena.
In Jung's theory, the power of a complex to admit new ideas into itself.
In Kelly's theory, a construct that sets clear limits to the range of its elements but also permits them to belong to other realms.
In Cattell's theory, traits that have their origin in heredity or the physiological condition of the organism.
In Kelly's theory, the assumption that any one event is open to a variety of interpretations.
A theory that suggests that the development of personality is essentially an accumulation of skills, habits, and discriminations without anything really new appearing in the make-up of the person.
A schedule of reinforcement in which the desired behavior is reinforced every time it occurs.
In an experiment, a group equally matched to the experimental group and used for comparison.
A reaction to anxiety or stress expressed through physical symptoms; the modern term for hysteria.
A statistical tool for making comparisons by expressing the extent to which two events covary.
In Kelly's theory, eleven statements that elaborate on the fundamental postulate.
A behavior that can be observed directly only by the individual actually experiencing it.
In Adler's theory, that aspect of the person that interprets and makes meaningful the experiences of the organism and establishes the life-style.
A method of analysis employed by Eysenck that begins with a hypothesis about possible variables and conducts statistical analyses in order to test the hypothesis.
Periods during which an organism is highly responsive to certain influences that may enhance or disrupt its development.
In Dollard and Miller's theory, a specific stimulus that tells the organism when, where, and how to respond.
Zen practiced for the sake of liberating others.
In May's theory, any natural function that has the power to take over a person.
In Freud's theory, a procedure that wards off anxiety and prevents its conscious perception.
A statement that is true because of the way in which we have agreed to use words.
Reinforcement that is delayed after a response.
In Freud's theory, a defense mechanism that entails refusing to believe a reality or a fact of life.
The Buddhist concept of interconnected causality.
In an experiment, the behavior under study.
A process whereby anxieties and fears are reduced by repeated, gradual, imagined or real exposures to the noxious stimuli paired with relaxation, skill training, and other behavioral techniques.
In Fromm's theory, a way of escaping from freedom by eliminating others and/or the outside world.
The philosophical view that behavior is controlled by external or internal forces and pressures.
In A. Freud's theory, a series of id-ego interactions in which children increase ego mastery of themselves and their world.
Sanskrit for the truth or law of the universe discovered by the Buddha; the Buddha's teaching.
A formal assessment procedure developed by Anna Freud that reflects developmental issues.
A term used to describe therapies whose course is primarily structured by the therapist.
The break that is experienced when a person cannot engage in mutually empathetic and empowering relationships.
A theory of personality that suggests that in the course of development an organism experiences genuine transformations or changes so that it reaches successively higher levels of organization.
The learned ability to distinguish among different stimuli.
In Freud's theory, a defense mechanism in which one object of an impulse is substituted for another.
A term used by Maslow to refer to deficiency needs that arise out of a lack.
A technique used by Freud and other analysts to uncover unconscious processes.
In Freud's theory, the process that disguises unconscious wishes and converts them into a manifest dream.
The psychological correlate of a need or stimulus that impels an organism into action. a) In Freud's theory, a psychological representation of an inner bodily source of excitement characterized by its source, impetus, aim, and object. b) In Dollard and Miller's theory, the primary motivation for behavior.
A concept forumated by Hull that suggests that learning occurs only if an organism's response is followed by the reduction of some need or drive.
Pali for suffering, dissatisfaction, imperfection, incompleteness; one of the three characteristics of existence according to the Buddha.
In Cattell's theory, traits that motivate an individual toward some goal.
In Sullivan's theory, a pattern of energy transformation that characterizes an individual's interpersonal relations.
Selecting the best from a variety of different theories or concepts.
The self. a) In Freud's theory, a function of the personality that follows the reality principle and operates according to secondary processes and reality testing. b) In Jung's theory, one's conscious perception of self.
In Freud's theory, a subsystem of the superego consisting of an ideal self-image.
ego identity versus role confusion
Erikson's psychosocial stage of adolescence in which one faces the task of developing a self-image.
ego integrity versus despair
Erikson's psychosocial stage of maturity that entails the task of being able to reflect on one's life with satisfaction.
Psychoanalytic theory that emphasizes the role of the ego in personality development.
The Buddha's prescription for living constituting the fourth Noble Truth; the "Middle Way" leading to nirvana.
A term that some critics have used to express the feminine counterpart to the male Oedipus complex.
emotionality versus stability
One of Eysenck's personality dimensions, involving an individual's adjustment to the environment and the stability of his or her behavior over time.
In Ellis's theory, helping clients to get in touch with their feelings.
The ability to recognize and understand another's feelings.
Based on experience and observation.
The philosophical view that human knowledge arises slowly in the course of experience through observation and experiment.
In Cattell's theory, traits that originate from the influences of physical and social surroundings.
A manifestation of the essential nature of something.
Balance or harmony.
In Freud's theory, life impulses or drives-forces that maintain life processes and ensure reproduction of the species.
In Cattell's theory, a constitutional dynamic trait.
Areas of the body that provide pleasure.
In philosophy, the unchangeable principles and laws that govern being.
Improving the human race through genetic control.
In Rogers's theory, a response that places a value judgment on thoughts, feelings, wishes, or behavior.
Electrical activity in the brain.
The branch of psychology that considers the impact of evolution on psychological mechanisms.
excitation and stimulation
In Fromm's theory, the need to actively strive for a goal rather than simply respond.
expressive psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy
Kernberg's method of treatment.
In Fromm's theory, a dilemma or problem that arises simply from the fact of existence.
A philosophical movement that studies the meaning of existence.
In Rotter's theory, the individual's subjective expectation about the outcome of his or her behavior.
A scientific method involving a careful study of cause and effect by manipulating variables and observing their effects.
In Fromm's theory, a character type in which a person exploits others and the world.
excitation and stimulation
In Fromm's theory, the need to actively strive for a goal rather than simply respond.
In Allport's theory, an individual's manner of performing.
The tendency of a response to disappear when it is not reinforced.
A quest that serves other purposes outside the original goal.
An attitude of expansion in which the psyche is oriented toward the external world.
extraversion versus introversion
One of Eysenck's personality dimensions, involving the degree to which a person is outgoing and participative in relating to other people.
Employed by Cattell, a procedure that interrelates many correlations at one time.
The act of disproving.
In Adler's theory, the quality of emotional relationships among members of a family.
In Adler's theory, one's position within the family in terms of birth order among siblings and the presence or absence of parents and other caregivers.
One of Jung's functions, involving valuing and judging the world.
In Adler's theory, a basic concept or philosophical assumption that cannot be tested against reality.
In Adler's theory, a principle that reflects the concept of goal orientation.
Five Factor Model (FFM)
A model for understanding personality structure based on five factors.
In Freud's theory, a concept in which there is an arrest of growth, and excessive needs characteristic of an earlier stage are created by overindulgence or undue frustration.
fixed schedule of reinforcement
A schedule of reinforcement in which the time period or number of responses before reinforcement is identical.
Four Noble Truths
The essence of the practical teaching of the Buddha, specifying the nature of suffering, its cause, its cessation, and the path to accomplish liberation from suffering.
frame of orientation and object of devotion
In Fromm's thought, the need for a stable thought system by which to organize perceptions and make sense out of the environment.
In Freud's psychoanalysis, a technique in which a person verbalizes whatever comes to mind.
freedom of movement
In Rotter's theory, the degree of expectation a person has that a particular set of responses will lead to a desired reinforcement.
In Dollard and Miller's theory, an emotion that occurs when one is unable to satisfy a drive because the response that would satisfy it has been blocked.
fully functioning person
A term used by Rogers to indicate an individual who is functioning at an optimum level.
In Allport's theory, a concept that present motives are not necessarily tied to the past but may be free of earlier motivations.
In Jung's theory, ways of perceiving the environment and orienting experiences.
In Kelly's theory, the basic assumption that a person's processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which he anticipates events.
Japanese for "palms of the hands pressed together," expressing the unity of the person and the universe, a gesture commonly used for greeting in many cultures in the East.
Zen practiced without connection to the Buddha's teachings, generally in order to attain mystical experiences.
A statement that may be made, when a number of different instances coincide, that something is true about many or all of the members of a certain class.
generalized conditioned reinforcers
In Skinner's theory, learned reinforcers that have the power to reinforce a great number of different behaviors.
generativity versus stagnation
Erikson's psychosocial stage of the middle years, in which one faces the dilemma of being productive and creative in life.
Freud's final psychosexual stage, in which an individual reaches sexual maturity.
The genetic makeup of an individual.
A therapist's attitude characterized by congruence and awareness in the therapeutic relationship.
Configuration or pattern that forms a whole.
The notion that the whole is more than the sum of its parts.
A branch of psychology that studies how organisms perceive objects and events.
In Adler's theory, dependent people who take rather than give.
goal of superiority
In Adler's theory, the ultimate fictional finalism, entailing the desire to be competent and effective in whatever one strives to do and to actualize one's potential.
The changing strength of a force, which may be plotted on a graph.
In Dollard and Miller's theory, the basic structure of personality: a learned association between a stimulus and response.
In Eysenck's theory, clusters of specific behaviors that characteristically recur in similar circumstances, such as buying groceries or giving parties.
In Fromm's theory, a way of existence that relies on possessions.
An estimate of the degree to which a trait or characteristic is caused by the genotype rather than the environment.
The desire not to reduce tension, but to seek new stimuli and challenges that will further growth.
The ability of a construct to predict future events.
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's theory of five basic needs ranked in order of strength: physiological, safety, belonging and love, self-esteem, and self-actualization.
hierarchy of response
In Dollard and Miller's theory, a tendency for certain responses to occur before other responses.
Sanskrit for "small vehicle," a designation for the southern schools of Buddhism concerned with personal liberation. One of the two major divisions of Buddhism.
In Fromm's theory, a dilemma or problem that arises out of human history because of various societies and cultures.
In Fromm's theory, a character type in which the person seeks to save or hoard and protects him- or herself from the world by a wall.
Balance or harmony.
Primary attraction to the same sex.
Chemicals released into the blood stream by the endocrine glands.
In Beck's therapy, experiencing arousing emotions and reality testing at the same time.
Theories of personality that emphasize human potential.
Humanistic Communitarian Socialism
The name of Fromm's ideal society.
In Fromm's theory, a value system that has its source in the individual acting in accord with the law of his or her human nature and assuming full responsibility for his or her existence.
In earlier psychology, bodily fluids thought to enter into the constitution of a body and determine, by their proportion, a person's constitution and temperament.
In Horney's theory, American society's sweeping desire to compete and win.
A preliminary assumption that guides further inquiry.
An earlier term for an illness in which there are physical symptoms, such as paralysis, but no organic or physiological basis for the problem.
In Freud's theory, the oldest and original function of the personality, which includes genetic inheritance, reflex capacities, instincts, and drives.
In Kohut's theory, the tendency children have to idealize their parents.
In Horney's theory, that which a person thinks he or she should be.
In Freud's theory, (a) a defense mechanism in which a person reduces anxiety by modeling his or her behavior after that of someone else, and (b) the process whereby the child resolves the Oedipus complex by incorporating the parents into the self.
In Erikson's theory, transitory failure to develop a self-image or identity.
In Allport's theory, an approach to studying personality that centers on understanding the uniqueness of the individual.
A questionnaire developed by Rotter to measure internal versus external locus of control.
In McAdams's theory, main characters that represent our primary social roles and cravings for power and love.
Reinforcement that immediately follows a response.
A sudden, instead of gradual, confrontation of a phobic situation.
A bond of attraction that develops among members of a species shortly after birth.
In Rogers's theory, the lack of harmony that results when a person's symbolized experiences do not represent the actual experiences.
In an experiment, the factor that is manipulated by the experimenter.
The school of psychology developed by Adler.
In Jung's theory of self-realization, a process whereby the systems of the individual psyche achieve their fullest degree of differentiation, expression, and development.
industry versus inferiority
Erikson's psychosocial stage, corresponding to Freud's latency period, in which children face the task of learning and mastering the technology of their culture.
In Adler's theory, a neurotic pattern in which an individual feels highly inadequate.
In Adler's theory, feelings of being inadequate that arise out of childhood experiences.
Species lower than human organisms.
The prevention of a response from occurring because it is in conflict with other strong unconscious responses.
initiative versus guilt
Erikson's psychosexual stage, corresponding to Freud's phallic stage, in which children face the task of directing their curiosity and activity toward specific goals and achievements.
In Erikson's theory, tendency on the part of girls to emphasize qualities of openness versus closedness in space.
A form of therapeutic knowing that combines intellectual and emotional elements and culminates in profound personality change.
Therapeutic procedures that seek to increase self-understanding and lead to deep motivational changes.
In May's theory, a dimension that undercuts conscious and unconscious, and underlies will and decision.
The school and theory of psychiatry founded by Harry Stack Sullivan.
In Rogers's theory, a response that seeks to interpret a speaker's problem or tell how the speaker feels about it.
Between psyches or persons.
A schedule of reinforcement in which the organism is reinforced after a certain time period has elapsed.
Sullivan's term for the interpersonal process that occurs between the patient and therapist.
intimacy versus isolation
Erikson's psychosocial stage of young adulthood in which one faces the task of establishing a close, deep, and meaningful genital relationship with another person.
Within the psyche or individual self.
An attitude of withdrawal in which personality is oriented inward toward the subjective world.
One of Jung's functions, entailing perception via the unconscious.
Intelligence quotient: a number used to express the relative intelligence of a person.
Sanskrit for volitional action.
Japanese for the meditational walking performed between periods of zazen.
Japanese for "public document," an apparently paradoxical story, anecdote, or statement expressing the realization of a Zen master.
A period in Freud's psychosexual stages of development in which the sexual drive was thought to go underground.
In Freud's theory, the real meaning or motive that underlies the dream that we remember.
law of effect
A law formulated by Thorndike that states that when a behavior or a performance is accompanied by satisfaction it tends to increase; if accompanied by frustration, it tends to decrease.
In Cattell's theory, observations made of a person's behavior in society or every-day life.
In Dollard and Miller's theory, the situation an individual is placed in if present responses are not reinforced.
a) In Freud's theory, an emotional and psychic energy derived from the biological drive of sexuality. b) In Jung's theory, an undifferentiated life and psychic energy.
In Erikson's theory, a crucial period in which the individual cannot avoid a decisive turn one way or the other.
locus of control
In Rotter's theory, the belief that reinforcements are controlled either by one's own behavior (internal) or by outside forces (external).
Frankl's theory that suggests people have realized freedom but we have not necessarily taken responsibility for our freedom.
In Fromm's theory, the productive relationship to others and the self, entailing care, responsibility, respect, and knowledge.
Theory that seeks to be global and that emphasizes comprehension of the whole person.
Sanskrit for "great vehicle," one of the two major divisions of Buddhism, concerned with the liberation of all sentient beings.
Sanskrit for "mind," the seventh of the eight consciousnesses, where the illusion of the ego arises.
A concentrically arranged figure often found as a symbol in the East that denotes wholeness and unity. In Jung's theory, a symbol for the emerging self.
In Freud's theory, the dream as it is remembered the next morning.
Sanskrit for "mental consciousness," the sixth of the eight consciousnesses and the basis for the five sensory consciousnesses.
In Fromm's theory, a character type in which the person experiences him- or herself as a commodity in the marketplace.
In Adler's early theory, the compensation for one's inferiorities.
A disorder in which a person obtains pleasure by receiving pain.
Sanskrit for deception, delusion, or illusion.
One of Hippocrates' temperaments, referring to an individual characterized by depression.
In Orlofsky's theory, individuals who commit themselves to a relationship at the price of their own independence.
In Lazarus's theory, the fact that people not only communicate but also think and communicate about their communications.
A term used by Maslow to refer to growth tendencies within the organism.
A term used by Freud to indicate the fullest possible description of psychic processes.
Theory that has resulted from specific research focused on limited aspects of human behavior.
minimum goal level
In Rotter's theory, the lowest level of potential reinforcement that is perceived as satisfactory in a particular situation.
In Kohut's theory, the need for children to have their talk and their accomplishments acknowledged, accepted, and praised.
mistaken style of life
In Adler's theory, a style of life that belies one's actual capabilities and strengths.
In Lazarus's therapy, a specific list of problems and proposed treatments across the client's BASIC-ID.
In Freud's theory, fear of the retribution of one's own conscience.
In Bandura's theory, practices that permit one to separate one's self from ethical behavior.
A system of psychotherapy developed in Japan early in the twentieth century by Shoma Morita, combining elements of Zen Buddhism and psychoanalysis.
Maslow's term for the reduction of tension by satisfying deficit states or lacks.
One of Horney's three primary modes of relating to other people, in which one seeks to protect him- or herself by revenge or controlling others.
One of Horney's three primary ways of relating to other people, in which one isolates him- or herself and keeps apart.
One of Horney's three primary modes of relating to other people, in which one accepts his or her own helplessness and becomes compliant in order to depend on others.
multimodal behavior therapy
Lazarus's method of therapy.
musturbatory belief systems
In Ellis's theory, escalating probalistic statements into absolutes.
A way of relating and sharing in which all participants are fully participating.
In May's theory, narrative patterns that give significance to our existence.
In Japanese culture, a form of introspective therapy emphasizing the development of responsibility and obligation.
A form of self-encapsulation in which an individual experiences as real only that which exists within him- or herself.
In Fromm's theory, a character orientation in which an individual is attracted to that which is dead and decaying and seeks to destroy living things.
a) In Murray's theory, a force in the brain that organizes perception, understanding, and behavior in such a way as to change an unsatisfying situation and increase satisfaction. b) In Rotter's theory, a behavior that leads to a reinforcement.
In Rotter's theory, the likelihood that a set of behaviors directed toward the same goal will be used in a given situation.
In Rotter's theory, the importance placed on a goal.
In Erikson's theory, an identity opposed to the dominant values of one's culture.
Unpleasant or aversive stimuli that can be changed or avoided by certain behavior.
The Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory developed by Costa and McCrae.
The Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory, Revised, developed by McCrae and Costa.
Psychoanalytic theories that revise or modify Freud's original theories.
In Freud's theory, the fear that one's inner impulses cannot be controlled.
neurotic needs or trends
In Horney's theory, exaggerated defense strategies that permit an individual to cope with the world.
Sanskrit for a mental state where craving and suffering have been completely extinguished.
In Allport's theory, an approach to studying personality that considers large groups of individuals in order to infer general variables or universal principles.
A term used by Rogers to describe therapies whose course is primarily determined by the patient.
normal curve of distribution
A bell-shaped curve representing many events in nature in which most events cluster around the mean.
In Kohut's theory, a well-developed self that ideally emerges in the second year.
a) In Freud's theory, any target through which an infant seeks to satisfy the aim of a drive. b) In object relations theory, the aim of relational needs in human development.
The intrapsychic experience of early relationships with others.
Data acquired through extrospection, the act of looking outward on the world as object.
The philosophical view that valid knowledge arises gradually in the course of experience through observation and experimentation.
The quality of recognizing or expressing reality without distortion by personal feeling. In test construction, construction of a test in such a way that it can be given and scored in a way that avoids the scorer's subjective bias.
In Bandura's theory, learning that occurs through observation without any direct reinforcement.
In Freud's theory, an unconscious psychological conflict in which the child loves the parent of the opposite sex.
A concept of personality that conceives of it as having a dynamic potential for growth, reconstitution, and change through extensive transactions within itself and the environment.
In Skinner's theory, a response that acts on the environment and is emitted without a stimulus necessarily being present.
In Skinner's theory, the process by which an operant response becomes associated with a reinforcement through learning.
A definition that specifies those behaviors that are included in the concept.
One of Freud's psychosexual stages, in which the major source of pleasure and potential conflict is the mouth.
organismic valuing process
In Rogers's theory, a subconscious natural phenomenon that guides an individual towards productive growth experiences.
In Erikson's theory, tendency on the part of boys to emphasize qualities of highness or lowness in space.
In Adler's theory, an exaggerated effort to cover up a weakness that entails a denial rather than an acceptance of the real situation.
Behavior that can be observed by an external observer.
A pattern or model.
Two opposites that seem to negate each other but cannot exist without each other. In May's theory, two opposing things that are posited against and seem to negate each other yet cannot exist without each other. In Lazarus's therapy, the use of contradictions.
In Sullivan's theory, a cognitive process in which one perceives causal relations but not on the basis of reality or logic.
A world of quantified, logical, and mathematical imaginary constructs used by the scientist to draw conclusions about the everyday world.
Variations in parenting due to differences in behaviors expressing warmth and control.
In Sullivan's theory, a concept that refers to the fact that an observer of an interpersonal relationship is also a participant in it.
In Maslow's theory, an intensified experience in which there is a loss of self or transcendence of self.
In Freud's theory, the concept that women view themselves as castrated males and envy the penis.
In Dollard and Miller's therapy, a phase in which the patient acquires new, more adaptive responses and habits.
perseverative functional autonomy
In Allport's theory, acts or behaviors that are repeated even though they may have lost their original function.
In Jung's theory, an archetype referring to one's social role and understanding of it.
In Kelly's theory, a hypothesis an individual forms in order to predict and control events, which makes the world meaningful and which is tested by later experience.
In Allport's theory, traits that are unique to an individual.
In Jung's theory, experiences of an individual's life that have been repressed or temporarily forgotten.
a) In social speech, one's public image. b) In Fromm's theory, the totality of an individual's psychic qualities. c) In Cattell's theory, that which permits prediction of what a person will do in a given situation. d) In Sullivan's theory, the characteristic ways in which an individual deals with other people.
The most recent name for Rogers's method of psychotherapy.
In Sullivan's theory, a group of feelings, attitude, and thoughts that have arisen out of one's interpersonal experiences.
Murray's term for his study of individual persons.
One of Freud's psychosexual stages, in which pleasurable and conflicting feelings are associated with the genital organs.
In Rogers's theory, the total sum of experiences an organism has.
The study of phenomena or appearances.
An individual's observable appearance and behavior.
An underlying view of the world that influences a person's thinking.
The systematic love and pursuit of wisdom.
One of Hippocrates temperaments, referring to an individual who is slow, solid, and apathetic.
In Freud's theory, the seeking of tension reduction followed by the id.
A phrase used by Freud to emphasize the point that children deviate in many ways from what is thought to be normal reproductive sexual activity.
A branch of psychology that seeks to study and understand the complex positive behavior of people in order to emphasize the systematic building and amplifying of human strengths and virtues.
In Rogers's theory, being loved and accepted for who one is.
Anything that serves to increase the frequency of a response.
In Rogers's theory, viewing the self favorably and with acceptance.
A criterion for evaluating rival hypotheses: the range or scope of the hypothesis.
In Kelly's theory, a construct that limits its elements to one range only.
In Murray's theory, a force coming from the environment that helps or hinders an individual in reaching goals.
A drive associated with a physiological process that is necessary for the organism's survival.
primary modes of relating
InHorney's theory, three major types of interpersonal coping strategies.
In Freud's theory, a psychological activity of the id characterized by immediate wish fulfillment and the disregard of realistic concerns.
A reinforcer that is inherently rewarding as it satisfies a primary drive.
Referring to theories of personality that view the human being as acting on his or her own initiative rather than simply reacting.
In Rogers's theory, a response that seeks further information.
In Murray's theory, a short, significant behavior pattern that has a clear beginning and ending.
In Fromm's theory, the character type that represents the ideal of humanistic development.
In Freud's theory, a defense mechanism that refers to the unconscious attribution of an impulse, attitude, or behavior to someone else or some element in the environment.
Personality tests in which an ambiguous stimulus is presented to the subject who is expected to project aspects of his or her personality into the response.
In Kelly's theory, a construct that leaves its elements open to other constructions.
propriate functional autonomy
In Allport's theory, acquired interests, values, attitudes, intentions, and life-style that are directed from the proprium and are genuinely free of earlier motivations.
In Allport's theory, the functions of the proprium.
In Allport's theory, a propriate function that entails projection of long-term purposes and goals and development of a plan to attain them.
In Allport's theory, a term that refers to the central experiences of self-awareness that a person has as he or she grows and moves forward.
In Sullivan's theory, a cognitive process in which the infant does not distinguish between the self and the external world.
From the Greek term meaning "breath" or "principle of life," often translated as "soul" or "self." a) In Freud's theory, the id, ego, and superego. b) In Jung's theory, the total personality encompassing all psychological processes: thoughts, feelings, sensations, wishes, and so on.
A method of therapy developed by Freud that concentrates on cultivating a transference relationship and analyzing resistances to the therapeutic process.
The combined use of psychoanalysis and history to study individuals and groups.
The psychological context within which an organism responds.
The quantitative measurement of psychological characteristics through statistical techniques.
Entailing components of both the mind and the body.
In Freud's theory, a series of developmental stages through which all people pass as they move from infancy to adulthood.
An abnormal personality disturbance characterized by loss or distortion of reality testing and the inability to distinguish between reality and fantasy.
A series of developmental stages proposed by Erikson to emphasize the social dimension of personality.
Treatment of emotional disorders by psychological means.
One of Eysenck's personality dimensions, involving the loss or distortion of reality and the inability to distinguish between reality and fantasy.
An undesirable consequence that follows a behavior and is designed to stop or change it.
A card-sorting technique employed by Rogers for studying the self-concept.
A label that has been given to B. F. Skinner's point of view.
In an experiment, insuring that every subject has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the treatment groups.
A schedule of reinforcement in which the organism is reinforced after a number of appropriate responses.
rational emotive behavior therapy
Ellis's method of psychotherapy.
The philosophical view that the mind can, in and of its own accord, formulate ideas and determine their truth.
In Freud's theory, a defense mechanism that entails dealing with an emotion or impulse analytically and intellectually, thereby not involving the emotions.
In Freud's theory, a defense mechanism in which an impulse is expressed by its opposite.
Referring to theories of personality that view the human beings as primarily responding to external stimuli.
In Horney's theory, that which a person actually is.
In Freud's theory, the fear of a real danger in the external world.
In Freud's theory, the way in which the ego satisfies the impulses of the id in an appropriate manner in the external world.
In Rogers's theory, a response that attempts to soothe feelings.
In Fromm's theory, a character type in which the individual reacts to the world passively.
reconstructive (or intensive) psychotherapy
Therapeutic methods that seek to remove defenses and reorganize the basic personality structure.
In Rogers's theory, a response that seeks to capture the underlying feeling expressed.
Inborn automatic responses.
In Freud's theory, a defense mechanism that entails reverting to earlier forms of behavior.
The process of increasing or decreasing the likelihood of a particular response.
In Rotter's theory, a variable that indicates the importance or preference of a particular reinforcement for an individual.
Any event that increases or decreases the likelihood of a particular response.
In Fromm's theory, the basic need to relate to and love other people.
A perspective for understanding personality developed by scholars working out of the Stone Center at Wellesley College.
One of the criteria for evaluating philosophical statements, the quality of having some bearing or being pertinent to one's view of reality.
The quality of consistently yielding the same results over time.
reproduction of mothering
In Chodorow's theory, a cyclical process in which women as mothers produce daughters with mothering capacities and the desire to mother.
Role Construct Repertory Test: a device developed by Kelly to reveal personal constructs.
a) In Freud's theory, the key defense mechanism, which entails blocking a wish or desire from expression so that it cannot be experienced consciously or directly expressed in behavior. b) In Dollard and Miller's theory, a learned process of avoiding certain thoughts and thereby losing verbal control.
One of Horney's three basic orientations, representing the desire to be free of others.
In Skinner's theory, reflexes or automatic responses elicited by a stimulus.
A behavior that results from a stimulus. In Dollard and Miller's theory, one's reaction to a cue or stimulus.
reticular activating system
The part of the brain that controls levels of arousal.
One of the two major schools of Zen Buddhism in Japan, stressing the use of koans and zazen to reach enlightenment.
a) In social psychology, a set of behavioral expectations set forth by a particular society and fulfilled by its members. b) In Kelly's theory, a process or behavior that a person plays based on his or her understanding of the behavior and constructs of other people.
In Erikson's theory, an inability to conceive of oneself as a productive member in one's society.
A therapeutic technique in Kelly and Beck's therapy, in which clients are asked to rehearse situations that will later happen in real life.
In Fromm's theory, the basic need to feel that one belongs in the world.
In Adler's theory, aggressive, dominating people who have little social interest or cultural perception.
A disorder in which a person obtains pleasure by inflicting pain.
In Adler's theory, compensatory mechanisms that ward off feelings of insecurity.
Zen practiced for its own sake, with no expectations and no thought of gain.
One of Hippocrates' temperaments, referring to a personality marked by sturdiness, high color, and cheerfulness.
Individual consultations between a Zen Buddhist monk and his master.
Engaging in a behavior until one tires of it.
Japanese for "enlightenment," the goal of Zen practice.
schedule of reinforcement
A program for increasing or decreasing the likelihood of a particular response.
In Beck's theory, cognitive structures that consist of an individual's fundamental core beliefs and assumptions about how the world operates.
A system or method of acquiring knowledge based on specific principles of observation and reasoning.
An imaginary or hypothetical construct used to explain what is observed in science.
scientific (or empirical) generalization
An inductive conclusion based on a number of different instances of observation.
A method of inquiry that consists of five steps: recognizing a problem, developing a hypothesis, making a prediction, testing the hypothesis, and drawing a conclusion.
A statement about the world based on observations arising from a currently held paradigm.
Exclusive reliance on a narrow conception of science.
In Allport's theory, more specific, focused tendencies of an individual that tend to be situational in character.
A drive that is learned or acquired on the basis of a primary drive.
In Freud's theory, higher intellectual functions that enable the ego to establish suitable courses of action and test them for their effectiveness.
A reinforcer that is originally neutral but that acquires reward value on the basis of association with a primary reinforcer.
In Sullivan's theory, an interpersonal device that a person uses to minimize anxiety and enhance security.
a) In Jung's theory, a central archetype representing the striving for unity of all parts of the personality. b) In Rogers's theory, the psychological processes that govern a person's behavior.
In the theories of Rogers and Maslow, a dynamic within the organism leading it to actualize, fulfill, and enhance its inherent potentialities.
In Horney's theory, a systematic effort at self-understanding conducted without the aid of a professional.
In Allport's theory, a propriate function that entails the perception of oneself as an active problem-solving agent.
In Rogers's theory, a portion of the phenomenal field that has become differentiated and is composed of perceptions and values of "I" or "me."
In Kelly's theory, perception of similarities in one's behavior based on role relationships with other people.
One of Horney's three basic orientations toward life, which represents an appeal to be loved by others.
In Bandura's theory, a person's perception of his or her effectiveness.
In Allport's theory, a propriate function that entails feelings of pride as one develops the ability to do things.
One of Horney's three basic orientations toward life, which represents a striving for mastery.
In Allport's theory, a propriate function that entails a sense of possession.
In Allport's theory, a propriate function that entails an awareness of inner sameness and continuity.
In Allport's theory, a propriate function that entails a sense of the expectations of others and its comparison with one's own behavior.
In Fromm's theory, love of self that is a prerequisite for love of others.
A new character type, informed by Fromm's theory, that is highly narcissistic.
In Jung's theory, a drive within the self to realize, fulfill, and enhance one's maximum human potentialities.
In Cattell's theory, an environmental-mold dynamic source trait composing a person's self-image.
In Bandura's theory, cognitive structures that underlie the perception, evaluation, and regulation of behavior. In Sullivan's theory a dynamism made up of security operations that defend the self against anxiety.
One of Jung's functions, referring to sense perception of the world.
sense of identity
In Fromm's theory, the need to be aware of oneself as an individual.
In Cattell's theory, an environmental-mold dynamic source trait.
A sequence of stages posited by Mahler through which the ego passes in the process of becoming an individual.
In Jung's theory, an archetype that encompasses one's animalistic and unsocial side.
In Skinner's theory, a process by which an organism's behavior is gradually molded until it approximates the desired behavior.
Japanese for "just sitting," the form of zazen practice stressed particularly in the Soto Zen tradition.
A Japanese label for a group of neuroses overlapping with the anxiety disorders in the DSM-IV classification.
Zen practiced for personal enlightenment or for relief from suffering.
A criterion for evaluating rival hypotheses: the quality of being simple and avoiding complicated explanations.
Sanskrit for "aggregate" or "heap." The five skandhas are form, feelings, perceptions, impulses, and consciousness.
In Freud's theory, bungled acts, such as a slip of the tongue, a slip of the pen, or a memory lapse.
In Adler's theory, an urge in human nature to adapt oneself to the conditions of one's environment and society.
social learning theories
Theories that attempt to explain personality in terms of learned behavior within a social context.
social psychoanalytic theories
Psychoanalytic theories that emphasize the role of social forces in shaping personality.
socially useful type
In Adler's theory, people who have a great deal of social interest and activity.
In Beck's theory, a personality dimension characterized by dependence on interpersonal relationships and needs for closeness and nurturance.
In Sheldon's theory, a component of temperament characterized by a predominance of muscular activity and vigorous bodily assertiveness.
Sheldon's term for the expression of body type through three numbers that indicate the degree of each physical component.
One of the two major schools of Zen Buddhism in Japan, stressing the practice of zazen as shikantaza and the identity of practice and enlightenment.
In Cattell's theory, underlying variables that determine surface manifestations.
Complex automatic behaviors that occur in all members of a species.
In Eysenck's theory, behaviors that we can actually observe, such as someone answering a phone.
An equation by which Cattell suggests we may eventually be able to predict human behavior.
In object relations therapy, separating an object image into opposites.
Following extinction, the return of a learned behavior.
Pre-testing of a large and representative sample in order to determine test norms.
An utterance that makes an assertion or a denial.
The application of mathematical principles to the description and analysis of measurements.
Prejudgment that we make about people on the basis of their membership in certain groups.
An agent that rouses or excites a response.
In Lazarus's therapy, a quantitative assessment of the relative involvement of each of the elements of the BASIC-ID in a client.
Early school of psychology that suggested that psychology study conscious experience.
Dollard and Miller's term for a neurosis.
style of life
In Adler's theory, the specific ways in which an individual seeks to attain the goal of superiority.
In Rogers's theory, a discriminative evaluative response of the organism that precedes conscious perception.
Data acquired through introspection, the act of looking inward on the self as subject.
A philosophical view that constructs of knowledge are creations of the self.
In Freud's theory, a defense mechanism that refers to translating a wish, the direct expression of which is socially unacceptable, into socially acceptable behavior.
In Cattell's theory, the principle that certain traits are secondary to other traits.
In Dollard and Miller's therapy, the interpretations of the therapist that provide increasingly more accurate labels for the patient's responses.
In Freud's theory, a function of the personality that represents introjected and internalized values, ideals, and moral standards.
In Adler's theory, a neurotic pattern in which an individual exaggerates his or her importance.
Therapeutic measures that seek to strengthen adaptive instincts and defenses.
In Cattell's theory, clusters of overt behavior responses that appear to go together.
Sanskrit for a sermon or discourse, usually of the Buddha.
In Fromm's theory, a relationship in which one or the other of two persons loses or never attains his or her independence.
An element in a dream that stands for something else.
A phenomenon in which events are related to one another through simultaneity and meaning.
In Cattell's theory, the behavior of a group as a whole or its "group personality."
In Sullivan's theory, the highest level of cognitive activity, entailing the use of symbols and relying on consensual validation.
In Dollard and Miller's therapy, a phase in which neurotic habits are studied, examined, and identified so that the patient may unlearn them.
A Chinese term for "Way" or "Path"; the absolute and ineffable nature of ultimate reality.
A Chinese philosophy and way of life based on the teachings of Lao-tse (ca. 4th century B.C.), stressing harmony with the Tao.
In Cattell's theory, objective tests.
In Lazarus's therapy, deriving treatment methods from many sources without necessarily agreeing with the theories that generated them.
A purpose or goal.
In Cattell's theory, traits that determine how a person behaves in order to obtain his or her goal.
In Freud's theory, the death impulse or drive, the source of aggression, the ultimate resolution of all of life's tension in death.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test consisting of ambiguous pictures to which a subject is asked to respond.
A set of abstract concepts made about a group of facts or events to explain them.
The practical application of psychology in ways that will assist individuals.
Pali for "the teaching of the Elders," the form of Buddhism dominant in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia. Sometimes referred to as the Hinayana.
One of Jung's functions, referring to giving meaning and understanding to the world.
In Lazarus's theory, tolerance levels for pain, frustration, or stress.
A community based on Skinnerian principles in which individuals are rewarded for appropriate behavior with tokens that can be exchanged for various privileges.
In Lazarus's therapy, paying careful attention to the "firing order" of the different modalities.
Continuous dimension that an individual can be seen to possess to a certain degree. a) In Allport's theory, a determining tendency to respond that represents the ultimate reality of psychological organization. b) In Cattell's theory, an imaginary construct or inference from overt behavior that helps to explain it.
Theories that conceive of personality as being composed primarily of traits.
a) In Jung's theory of self-realization, a process of integrating the diverse systems of the self toward the goal of wholeness and identification with all humanity. b) In Fromm's theory, the basic human need to rise above the accidental and passive creatureliness of animal existence and become an active creator.
In Freudian psychoanalysis, a process in which the patient projects onto the analyst emotional attitudes felt as a child toward important persons.
A branch of psychology concerned with those states and processes in which people experience a deeper or wider sense of who they are and a sense of greater connectedness with others, nature, and a "spiritual" dimension.
triadic reciprocal causation
In Bandura's theory, the regulation of behavior by an interplay of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors.
Sanskrit for the "three baskets" or collections of Buddhist scriptures.
trust versus mistrust
Erikson's psychosocial stage, corresponding to Freud's oral stage, in which infants face the task of trusting the world.
Division of human beings into distinct, separate categories.
tyranny of the should
In Horney's theory, creating false needs instead of meeting genuine ones.
unconditional positive regard
In Rogers's theory, positive regard that is not contingent on any specific behaviors.
A reflex or automatic response to a stimulus.
A stimulus that normally elicits a particular reflex or automatic response.
a) In Freud's theory, processes of which a person is unaware because they have been repressed or never permitted to become conscious. b) In Dollard and Miller's theory, drives or cues of which we are unaware because they are unlabeled or repressed.
a) In scientific theorizing, the ability of a hypothesis to generate predictions about experiences that we might observe. b) In Adler's theory, the ability of a goal to foster productive living and enhance one's life.
Observable consequences that follow an experiment designed to test a hypothesis and are used to support a construct or theory.
The quality of measuring what a construct is supposed to measure.
A characteristic that can be measured or controlled.
variable schedule of reinforcement
A schedule of reinforcement in which the time period or number of responses prior to reinforcement varies.
Capable of being tested by a method that ultimately relies on empirical observation.
Sanskrit for "consciousness."
In Erikson's theory, ego strengths that develop out of each psychosocial stage.
The limbic system and the hypothalamus.
Skinner's name for his utopian comunity.
In Freud's theory, a primary-process activity that seeks to reduce tension by forming an image of the object that would satisfy needs.
In Freud's theory, desires that may be rendered unconscious if they go against a person's ego-ideal.
In Fromm's theory, a relationship characterized by distance, apathy, or aggression.
In Horney's theory, the concept that men and boys experience jealousy over women's ability to bear and nurse children.
Chinese Taoist term for the positive, masculine, active, external aspect of the complementary yin and yang polarity.
Chinese Taoist term for the negative, feminine, passive, internal aspect of the complementary yin and yang polarity.