Personality Theories, 6e | Glossary
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A-B-C theory of personality In Ellis's rational emotive behavior therapy, the theory that a highly charged emotional consequence (C) is caused not by a significant activation event (A), but by the individual's belief system (B).

absolute must In Ellis's theory, a dogmatic, unrealistic demand placed on oneself.

acceptance A nonjudgmental recognition of oneself, others, and the world.

active imagination In Jung's psychotherapy, a method for getting in touch with the archetypes.

affective arousal The arousal of emotions in conjunction with cognitions.

agentic perspective Bandura's view of persons as agents of experience.

alayavijnana Sanskrit for the storehouse consciousness, the last of the eight consciousnesses.

alienation In Horney's theory, a state in which the real self and the idealized self are disjunct.

amplification In Jungian therapy, an analytical method whereby one focuses repeatedly on an element and gives multiple associations to it.

anal stage One of Freud's psychosexual stages, in which the major source of pleasure and conflict is the anus.

analytical psychology The school of psychology founded by Carl Jung.

anatta Pali for non-selfness, the lack of a permanent separate self, one of the three characteristics of existence in Buddhism.

androgyny The presence of both masculine and feminine qualities in an individual and the ability to realize both potentials.

anicca Pali for impermanence and transiency, one of the three characteristics of existence according to the Buddha.

anima In Jung's theory, an archetype representing the feminine side of the male personality.

animus In Jung's theory, an archetype representing the masculine side of the female personality.

anxiety An emotional state characterized by a vague fear or premonition that something undesirable may happen. In May's theory, the apprehension cued off by a threat to some value that the individual holds as essential to his or her existence as a person. In Sullivan's theory, any painful feeling or emotion that may arise from organic needs or social insecurity.

archetype In Jung's theory, a universal thought form or predisposition to perceive the world in certain ways.

assessment Evaluation or measurement.

atman Sanskrit for soul, self, or ego.

attachment theory A theory developed by Bowlby concerning the tendency to bond with other people and experience distress following separation and loss.

attitude A positive or negative feeling toward an object. a) In Jung's theory, a basic psychotype. b) In Cattell's theory, a surface dynamic trait.

authoritarian ethics In Fromm's theory, a value system whose source lies outside the individual.

authoritarianism In Fromm's theory, a way of escaping from freedom by adhering to a new form of submission or domination.

autoeroticism Self-love. In Freud's theory, the child's sexual activity.

automatic thoughts In Beck's theory, involuntary, unintentional, preconscious thoughts that are difficult to regulate.

automaton conformity In Fromm's theory, a way of escaping from freedom by adopting the personality proffered by one's culture.

autonomous dimension In Beck's theory, a personality dimension characterized by independence.

autonomous self In Kohut's theory, an ideal self with qualities of self-esteem and self-confidence.

autonomy versus shame and doubt Erikson's psychosocial stage, corresponding to Freud's anal stage, in which the child faces the task of developing control over his or her body and bodily activities.

autotelic Containing its own goal, an activity done for its own sake.

avoiding type In Adler's theory, people who try to escape life's problems and who engage in little socially constructive activity.






basic anxiety In Horney's theory, feelings of insecurity in which the environment as a whole is dreaded because it is seen as unrealistic, dangerous, unappreciative, and unfair.

basic evil In Horney's theory, all of the negative factors in the environment that can provoke insecurity in a child.

BASIC-ID In Lazarus's theory, an examination of the seven modalities, behavior, affect, sensation, imagery, cognition, interpersonal relationships, and drugs, that make up human personality.

basic needs therapy Therapeutic procedures that seek to meet the primary needs of people.

basic orientations In Horney's theory, fundamental modes of interaction with the world.

Beck Depression Inventory An instrument developed by Beck to measure depression.

behavior The activity of an organism. a) In learning theory, a response to stimuli. b) In Rogers's theory, the goal-directed attempt of the organism to meet its needs as it perceives them.

behavioral genetics Study of the cause of individual differences in terms of heredity.

behavioral specificity Michel's view that behavior is determined by the specific situation.

behavior modification A form of therapy that applies the principles of learning to achieve changes in behavior.

behavior potential In Rotter's theory, a variable that refers to the likelihood that a particular behavior will occur.

behavior therapy a) A form of therapy that aims to eliminate symptoms of illness through learning new responses. b) In Ellis's theory, helping clients change maladaptive patterns of behavior and their cognition.

behaviorism A movement in psychology founded by John Watson, who suggested that psychologists should focus their attention on the study of overt behavior.

being mode In Fromm's theory, a way of life that depends solely on the fact of existence.

Big Five Five primary factors that typically surface from personality questionnaires and inventories: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.

biophilia hypothesis In Wilson's theory, an intense need to belong to the rest of the living world.

biophilous character In Fromm's theory, a character orientation that is synonymous with the productive orientation.

biosocial Eysenck's approach to personality, which emphasizes biological and genetic factors as well as social and environmental ones.

B-needs A term used by Maslow to refer to being needs that arise from the organism's drive to self-actualize and fulfill its potential.

bodhisattva Sanskrit for "enlightenment being," a person who has vowed not to accept final liberation from suffering until all sentient beings are liberated; the ideal of the Mahayana tradition.

bodily self In Allport's theory, a propriate function that entails coming to know one's body limits.

Bompu Zen Zen practiced for a profit, such as stress management or increased mental health.

borderline patients In Kernberg's theory, patients with oral tendencies but also powerful aggressive tendencies.

bridging A multimodal technique used by counselors to deliberately begin work in terms of their client's preferred modality.

Buddha "Awake" or "enlightened one." One who has fully awakened to the Turth.






CAPS Acronym for Mischel and Shoda's cognitive affective personality system.

cardinal disposition In Allport's theory, a personal disposition so pervasive that almost every behavior of an individual appears to be influenced by it.

castration anxiety In Freud's theory, the child's fear of losing the penis.

catharsis An emotional release that occurs when an idea is brought to consciousness and allowed expression.

central disposition In Allport's theory, a highly characteristic tendency of an individual.

central relational paradox The phenomenon by which people who have experienced trouble in relationships continue to try to make new connections but are hindered in doing so.

cerebrotonia In Sheldon's theory, a component of temperament characterized by a predominance of restraint, inhibition, and the desire for concealment.

choleric One of Hippocrates' temperaments, referring to an individual who tends to be irascible and violent.

classical conditioning A form of learning in which a response becomes associated with a previously neutral stimulus.

client-centered psychotherapy A therapeutic technique developed by Rogers that focuses attention on the person seeking help.

cloning Creating a genetic twin of an individual.

closed system A concept of personality that admits little or nothing new from outside the organism to influence or change it in any significant way.

cognition The process of knowing.

cognitions In Beck's theory, a person's awareness.

cognitive complexity The ability to perceive differences in the way in which one construes other people.

cognitive distortions In Beck's theory, systematic errors in reasoning.

cognitive neuroscience A field that concentrates on how mental activities occur in the brain.

cognitive processes Ways in which we experience the world and relate to others in the course of personality development.

cognitive theories Theories of personality that emphasize cognitive processes such as thinking and judging.

cognitive therapy In Ellis's theory, showing clients how to recognize their "should" and "must" thoughts, how to separate rational from irrational beliefs, and how to accept reality. In Beck's theory, a set of well-defined therapeutic techniques that seeks to remove systematic biases in thinking.

cognitive triad In Beck's theory, the depressed individual has a negative view of the self, the world, and the future.

coherence One of the criteria for judging philosophical statements: the quality or state of logical consistency.

collective unconscious In Jung's theory, a shared, transpersonal unconscious consisting of potential ways of being human.

common traits In Allport's theory, hypothetical traits that permit us to compare individuals according to certain shared dimensions.

compatibility A criterion for evaluating rival hypotheses: the agreement of the hypothesis with other previously well-established information.

compellingness One of the criteria for evaluating philosophical statements: the quality of appealing to someone with a driving force.

compensation Making up for or overcoming a weakness.

compensatory function In Jung's theory, an effort to complement one's conscious side and speak for the unconscious.

compensatory mechanisms In Adler's theory, safeguarding tendencies that ward off feelings of inferiority.

complex In Jung's theory, an organized group of thoughts, feelings, and memories about a particular concept.

comprehensiveness One of the criteria for evaluating philosophical statements: the quality of having a broad scope or range and depth of coverage.

conditional positive regard In Rogers's theory, positive regard that is given only under certain circumstances.

conditioned response A response that becomes associated with a stimulus through learning.

conditioned stimulus A previously neutral stimulus that becomes associated with a response.

conditions of worth In Rogers's theory, stipulations imposed by other people indicating when an individual will be given positive regard.

conflict a) In Freud's theory, the basic incompatibility that exists among the id, ego, superego, and the external world. b) In Dollard and Miller's theory, frustration that arises from a situation in which incompatible responses occur at the same time.

congruence In Rogers's theory, the state of harmony that exists when a person's symbolized experiences reflect the actual experiences of his or her organism.

connections In relational/cultural theory, the basic origins of growth and development.

conscience In Freud's theory, a subsystem of the superego that refers to the capacity for self-evaluation, criticism, and reproach.

conscious In Freud's theory, the thoughts, feelings, and wishes that a person is aware of at any given moment.

consensual validation Agreement among observers about phenomena.

constellating power In Jung's theory, the power of a complex to admit new ideas into itself.

constellatory construct In Kelly's theory, a construct that sets clear limits to the range of its elements but also permits them to belong to other realms.

constitutional traits In Cattell's theory, traits that have their origin in heredity or the physiological condition of the organism.

constructive alternativism In Kelly's theory, the assumption that any one event is open to a variety of interpretations.

continuity theory A theory that suggests that the development of personality is essentially an accumulation of skills, habits, and discriminations without anything really new appearing in the make-up of the person.

continuous reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which the desired behavior is reinforced every time it occurs.

control group In an experiment, a group equally matched to the experimental group and used for comparison.

conversion disorder A reaction to anxiety or stress expressed through physical symptoms; the modern term for hysteria.

correlation A statistical tool for making comparisons by expressing the extent to which two events covary.

corollaries In Kelly's theory, eleven statements that elaborate on the fundamental postulate.

covert behavior A behavior that can be observed directly only by the individual actually experiencing it.

creative self In Adler's theory, that aspect of the person that interprets and makes meaningful the experiences of the organism and establishes the life-style.

criterion analysis A method of analysis employed by Eysenck that begins with a hypothesis about possible variables and conducts statistical analyses in order to test the hypothesis.

critical periods Periods during which an organism is highly responsive to certain influences that may enhance or disrupt its development.

cue In Dollard and Miller's theory, a specific stimulus that tells the organism when, where, and how to respond.






Daijo Zen Zen practiced for the sake of liberating others.

daimonic In May's theory, any natural function that has the power to take over a person.

defense mechanism In Freud's theory, a procedure that wards off anxiety and prevents its conscious perception.

definition A statement that is true because of the way in which we have agreed to use words.

delayed reinforcement Reinforcement that is delayed after a response.

denial In Freud's theory, a defense mechanism that entails refusing to believe a reality or a fact of life.

dependent origination The Buddhist concept of interconnected causality.

dependent variable In an experiment, the behavior under study.

desensitization A process whereby anxieties and fears are reduced by repeated, gradual, imagined or real exposures to the noxious stimuli paired with relaxation, skill training, and other behavioral techniques.

destructiveness In Fromm's theory, a way of escaping from freedom by eliminating others and/or the outside world.

determinism The philosophical view that behavior is controlled by external or internal forces and pressures.

developmental line In A. Freud's theory, a series of id-ego interactions in which children increase ego mastery of themselves and their world.

Dharma Sanskrit for the truth or law of the universe discovered by the Buddha; the Buddha's teaching.

diagnostic profile A formal assessment procedure developed by Anna Freud that reflects developmental issues.

directive A term used to describe therapies whose course is primarily structured by the therapist.

disconnection The break that is experienced when a person cannot engage in mutually empathetic and empowering relationships.

discontinuity theory A theory of personality that suggests that in the course of development an organism experiences genuine transformations or changes so that it reaches successively higher levels of organization.

discrimination The learned ability to distinguish among different stimuli.

displacement In Freud's theory, a defense mechanism in which one object of an impulse is substituted for another.

D-needs A term used by Maslow to refer to deficiency needs that arise out of a lack.

dream analysis A technique used by Freud and other analysts to uncover unconscious processes.

dream work In Freud's theory, the process that disguises unconscious wishes and converts them into a manifest dream.

drive The psychological correlate of a need or stimulus that impels an organism into action. a) In Freud's theory, a psychological representation of an inner bodily source of excitement characterized by its source, impetus, aim, and object. b) In Dollard and Miller's theory, the primary motivation for behavior.

drive reduction A concept forumated by Hull that suggests that learning occurs only if an organism's response is followed by the reduction of some need or drive.

dukkha Pali for suffering, dissatisfaction, imperfection, incompleteness; one of the three characteristics of existence according to the Buddha.

dynamic traits In Cattell's theory, traits that motivate an individual toward some goal.

dynamism In Sullivan's theory, a pattern of energy transformation that characterizes an individual's interpersonal relations.






eclectic Selecting the best from a variety of different theories or concepts.

ego The self. a) In Freud's theory, a function of the personality that follows the reality principle and operates according to secondary processes and reality testing. b) In Jung's theory, one's conscious perception of self.

ego-ideal In Freud's theory, a subsystem of the superego consisting of an ideal self-image.

ego identity versus role confusion Erikson's psychosocial stage of adolescence in which one faces the task of developing a self-image.

ego integrity versus despair Erikson's psychosocial stage of maturity that entails the task of being able to reflect on one's life with satisfaction.

ego-psychoanalytic theory Psychoanalytic theory that emphasizes the role of the ego in personality development.

Eightfold Path The Buddha's prescription for living constituting the fourth Noble Truth; the "Middle Way" leading to nirvana.

Electra complex A term that some critics have used to express the feminine counterpart to the male Oedipus complex.

emotionality versus stability One of Eysenck's personality dimensions, involving an individual's adjustment to the environment and the stability of his or her behavior over time.

emotive-evocative therapy In Ellis's theory, helping clients to get in touch with their feelings.

empathy The ability to recognize and understand another's feelings.

empirical Based on experience and observation.

empiricism The philosophical view that human knowledge arises slowly in the course of experience through observation and experiment.

environmental-mold traits In Cattell's theory, traits that originate from the influences of physical and social surroundings.

epiphany A manifestation of the essential nature of something.

equilibrium Balance or harmony.

Eros In Freud's theory, life impulses or drives-forces that maintain life processes and ensure reproduction of the species.

erg In Cattell's theory, a constitutional dynamic trait.

erogenous zones Areas of the body that provide pleasure.

essence In philosophy, the unchangeable principles and laws that govern being.

eugenics Improving the human race through genetic control.

evaluative response In Rogers's theory, a response that places a value judgment on thoughts, feelings, wishes, or behavior.

evoked potential Electrical activity in the brain.

evolutionary psychology The branch of psychology that considers the impact of evolution on psychological mechanisms.

excitation and stimulation In Fromm's theory, the need to actively strive for a goal rather than simply respond.

expressive psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy Kernberg's method of treatment.

existential dichotomy In Fromm's theory, a dilemma or problem that arises simply from the fact of existence.

existentialism A philosophical movement that studies the meaning of existence.

expectancy In Rotter's theory, the individual's subjective expectation about the outcome of his or her behavior.

experimental method A scientific method involving a careful study of cause and effect by manipulating variables and observing their effects.

exploitative orientation In Fromm's theory, a character type in which a person exploits others and the world.

excitation and stimulation In Fromm's theory, the need to actively strive for a goal rather than simply respond.

expressive behavior In Allport's theory, an individual's manner of performing.

extinction The tendency of a response to disappear when it is not reinforced.

extrinsic A quest that serves other purposes outside the original goal.

extraversion An attitude of expansion in which the psyche is oriented toward the external world.

extraversion versus introversion One of Eysenck's personality dimensions, involving the degree to which a person is outgoing and participative in relating to other people.






factor analysis Employed by Cattell, a procedure that interrelates many correlations at one time.

falsification The act of disproving.

family atmosphere In Adler's theory, the quality of emotional relationships among members of a family.

family constellation In Adler's theory, one's position within the family in terms of birth order among siblings and the presence or absence of parents and other caregivers.

feeling One of Jung's functions, involving valuing and judging the world.

fictional finalism In Adler's theory, a basic concept or philosophical assumption that cannot be tested against reality.

finalism In Adler's theory, a principle that reflects the concept of goal orientation.

Five Factor Model (FFM) A model for understanding personality structure based on five factors.

fixation In Freud's theory, a concept in which there is an arrest of growth, and excessive needs characteristic of an earlier stage are created by overindulgence or undue frustration.

fixed schedule of reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which the time period or number of responses before reinforcement is identical.

Four Noble Truths The essence of the practical teaching of the Buddha, specifying the nature of suffering, its cause, its cessation, and the path to accomplish liberation from suffering.

frame of orientation and object of devotion In Fromm's thought, the need for a stable thought system by which to organize perceptions and make sense out of the environment.

free association In Freud's psychoanalysis, a technique in which a person verbalizes whatever comes to mind.

freedom of movement In Rotter's theory, the degree of expectation a person has that a particular set of responses will lead to a desired reinforcement.

frustration In Dollard and Miller's theory, an emotion that occurs when one is unable to satisfy a drive because the response that would satisfy it has been blocked.

fully functioning person A term used by Rogers to indicate an individual who is functioning at an optimum level.

functional autonomy In Allport's theory, a concept that present motives are not necessarily tied to the past but may be free of earlier motivations.

functions In Jung's theory, ways of perceiving the environment and orienting experiences.

fundamental postulate In Kelly's theory, the basic assumption that a person's processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which he anticipates events.






gassho Japanese for "palms of the hands pressed together," expressing the unity of the person and the universe, a gesture commonly used for greeting in many cultures in the East.

Gedo Zen Zen practiced without connection to the Buddha's teachings, generally in order to attain mystical experiences.

generalization A statement that may be made, when a number of different instances coincide, that something is true about many or all of the members of a certain class.

generalized conditioned reinforcers In Skinner's theory, learned reinforcers that have the power to reinforce a great number of different behaviors.

generativity versus stagnation Erikson's psychosocial stage of the middle years, in which one faces the dilemma of being productive and creative in life.

genital stage Freud's final psychosexual stage, in which an individual reaches sexual maturity.

genotype The genetic makeup of an individual.

genuineness A therapist's attitude characterized by congruence and awareness in the therapeutic relationship.

gestalt Configuration or pattern that forms a whole.

gestalt principle The notion that the whole is more than the sum of its parts.

gestalt psychology A branch of psychology that studies how organisms perceive objects and events.

getting type In Adler's theory, dependent people who take rather than give.

goal of superiority In Adler's theory, the ultimate fictional finalism, entailing the desire to be competent and effective in whatever one strives to do and to actualize one's potential.

gradient The changing strength of a force, which may be plotted on a graph.






habit In Dollard and Miller's theory, the basic structure of personality: a learned association between a stimulus and response.

habitual responses In Eysenck's theory, clusters of specific behaviors that characteristically recur in similar circumstances, such as buying groceries or giving parties.

having mode In Fromm's theory, a way of existence that relies on possessions.

heritability An estimate of the degree to which a trait or characteristic is caused by the genotype rather than the environment.

heterostasis The desire not to reduce tension, but to seek new stimuli and challenges that will further growth.

heuristic value The ability of a construct to predict future events.

hierarchy of needs Maslow's theory of five basic needs ranked in order of strength: physiological, safety, belonging and love, self-esteem, and self-actualization.

hierarchy of response In Dollard and Miller's theory, a tendency for certain responses to occur before other responses.

Hinayana Sanskrit for "small vehicle," a designation for the southern schools of Buddhism concerned with personal liberation. One of the two major divisions of Buddhism.

historical dichotomy In Fromm's theory, a dilemma or problem that arises out of human history because of various societies and cultures.

hoarding orientation In Fromm's theory, a character type in which the person seeks to save or hoard and protects him- or herself from the world by a wall.

homeostasis Balance or harmony.

homosexuality Primary attraction to the same sex.

hormones Chemicals released into the blood stream by the endocrine glands.

hot cognitions In Beck's therapy, experiencing arousing emotions and reality testing at the same time.

humanist theories Theories of personality that emphasize human potential.

Humanistic Communitarian Socialism The name of Fromm's ideal society.

humanistic ethics In Fromm's theory, a value system that has its source in the individual acting in accord with the law of his or her human nature and assuming full responsibility for his or her existence.

humors In earlier psychology, bodily fluids thought to enter into the constitution of a body and determine, by their proportion, a person's constitution and temperament.

hypercompetitiveness In Horney's theory, American society's sweeping desire to compete and win.

hypothesis A preliminary assumption that guides further inquiry.

hysteria An earlier term for an illness in which there are physical symptoms, such as paralysis, but no organic or physiological basis for the problem.






id In Freud's theory, the oldest and original function of the personality, which includes genetic inheritance, reflex capacities, instincts, and drives.

idealization In Kohut's theory, the tendency children have to idealize their parents.

idealized self In Horney's theory, that which a person thinks he or she should be.

identification In Freud's theory, (a) a defense mechanism in which a person reduces anxiety by modeling his or her behavior after that of someone else, and (b) the process whereby the child resolves the Oedipus complex by incorporating the parents into the self.

identity crisis In Erikson's theory, transitory failure to develop a self-image or identity.

idiographic In Allport's theory, an approach to studying personality that centers on understanding the uniqueness of the individual.

I-E Scale A questionnaire developed by Rotter to measure internal versus external locus of control.

imagoes In McAdams's theory, main characters that represent our primary social roles and cravings for power and love.

immediate reinforcement Reinforcement that immediately follows a response.

implosive A sudden, instead of gradual, confrontation of a phobic situation.

imprinting A bond of attraction that develops among members of a species shortly after birth.

incongruence In Rogers's theory, the lack of harmony that results when a person's symbolized experiences do not represent the actual experiences.

independent variable In an experiment, the factor that is manipulated by the experimenter.

individual psychology The school of psychology developed by Adler.

individuation In Jung's theory of self-realization, a process whereby the systems of the individual psyche achieve their fullest degree of differentiation, expression, and development.

industry versus inferiority Erikson's psychosocial stage, corresponding to Freud's latency period, in which children face the task of learning and mastering the technology of their culture.

inferiority complex In Adler's theory, a neurotic pattern in which an individual feels highly inadequate.

inferiority feelings In Adler's theory, feelings of being inadequate that arise out of childhood experiences.

infrahuman species Species lower than human organisms.

inhibition The prevention of a response from occurring because it is in conflict with other strong unconscious responses.

initiative versus guilt Erikson's psychosexual stage, corresponding to Freud's phallic stage, in which children face the task of directing their curiosity and activity toward specific goals and achievements.

inner space In Erikson's theory, tendency on the part of girls to emphasize qualities of openness versus closedness in space.

insight A form of therapeutic knowing that combines intellectual and emotional elements and culminates in profound personality change.

insight therapy Therapeutic procedures that seek to increase self-understanding and lead to deep motivational changes.

intentionality In May's theory, a dimension that undercuts conscious and unconscious, and underlies will and decision.

interpersonal psychiatry The school and theory of psychiatry founded by Harry Stack Sullivan.

interpretative response In Rogers's theory, a response that seeks to interpret a speaker's problem or tell how the speaker feels about it.

interpsychic Between psyches or persons.

interval reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which the organism is reinforced after a certain time period has elapsed.

interview Sullivan's term for the interpersonal process that occurs between the patient and therapist.

intimacy versus isolation Erikson's psychosocial stage of young adulthood in which one faces the task of establishing a close, deep, and meaningful genital relationship with another person.

intrapsychic Within the psyche or individual self.

introversion An attitude of withdrawal in which personality is oriented inward toward the subjective world.

intuition One of Jung's functions, entailing perception via the unconscious.

IQ Intelligence quotient: a number used to express the relative intelligence of a person.






karma Sanskrit for volitional action.

kinhin Japanese for the meditational walking performed between periods of zazen.

koan Japanese for "public document," an apparently paradoxical story, anecdote, or statement expressing the realization of a Zen master.






latency period A period in Freud's psychosexual stages of development in which the sexual drive was thought to go underground.

latent dream In Freud's theory, the real meaning or motive that underlies the dream that we remember.

law of effect A law formulated by Thorndike that states that when a behavior or a performance is accompanied by satisfaction it tends to increase; if accompanied by frustration, it tends to decrease.

L-data In Cattell's theory, observations made of a person's behavior in society or every-day life.

learning dilemma In Dollard and Miller's theory, the situation an individual is placed in if present responses are not reinforced.

libido a) In Freud's theory, an emotional and psychic energy derived from the biological drive of sexuality. b) In Jung's theory, an undifferentiated life and psychic energy.

life crisis In Erikson's theory, a crucial period in which the individual cannot avoid a decisive turn one way or the other.

locus of control In Rotter's theory, the belief that reinforcements are controlled either by one's own behavior (internal) or by outside forces (external).

logotherapy Frankl's theory that suggests people have realized freedom but we have not necessarily taken responsibility for our freedom.

love In Fromm's theory, the productive relationship to others and the self, entailing care, responsibility, respect, and knowledge.






macro theory Theory that seeks to be global and that emphasizes comprehension of the whole person.

Mahayana Sanskrit for "great vehicle," one of the two major divisions of Buddhism, concerned with the liberation of all sentient beings.

manas Sanskrit for "mind," the seventh of the eight consciousnesses, where the illusion of the ego arises.

mandala A concentrically arranged figure often found as a symbol in the East that denotes wholeness and unity. In Jung's theory, a symbol for the emerging self.

manifest dream In Freud's theory, the dream as it is remembered the next morning.

manovijnana Sanskrit for "mental consciousness," the sixth of the eight consciousnesses and the basis for the five sensory consciousnesses.

marketing orientation In Fromm's theory, a character type in which the person experiences him- or herself as a commodity in the marketplace.

masculine protest In Adler's early theory, the compensation for one's inferiorities.

masochism A disorder in which a person obtains pleasure by receiving pain.

maya Sanskrit for deception, delusion, or illusion.

melancholic One of Hippocrates' temperaments, referring to an individual characterized by depression.

mergers In Orlofsky's theory, individuals who commit themselves to a relationship at the price of their own independence.

metacommunication In Lazarus's theory, the fact that people not only communicate but also think and communicate about their communications.

metamotivation A term used by Maslow to refer to growth tendencies within the organism.

metapsychological A term used by Freud to indicate the fullest possible description of psychic processes.

micro theory Theory that has resulted from specific research focused on limited aspects of human behavior.

minimum goal level In Rotter's theory, the lowest level of potential reinforcement that is perceived as satisfactory in a particular situation.

mirrored In Kohut's theory, the need for children to have their talk and their accomplishments acknowledged, accepted, and praised.

mistaken style of life In Adler's theory, a style of life that belies one's actual capabilities and strengths.

modality profiles In Lazarus's therapy, a specific list of problems and proposed treatments across the client's BASIC-ID.

moral anxiety In Freud's theory, fear of the retribution of one's own conscience.

moral disengagement In Bandura's theory, practices that permit one to separate one's self from ethical behavior.

Morita therapy A system of psychotherapy developed in Japan early in the twentieth century by Shoma Morita, combining elements of Zen Buddhism and psychoanalysis.

motivation Maslow's term for the reduction of tension by satisfying deficit states or lacks.

moving against One of Horney's three primary modes of relating to other people, in which one seeks to protect him- or herself by revenge or controlling others.

moving away One of Horney's three primary ways of relating to other people, in which one isolates him- or herself and keeps apart.

moving toward One of Horney's three primary modes of relating to other people, in which one accepts his or her own helplessness and becomes compliant in order to depend on others.

multimodal behavior therapy Lazarus's method of therapy.

musturbatory belief systems In Ellis's theory, escalating probalistic statements into absolutes.

mutuality A way of relating and sharing in which all participants are fully participating.

myths In May's theory, narrative patterns that give significance to our existence.






Naikan therapy In Japanese culture, a form of introspective therapy emphasizing the development of responsibility and obligation.

narcissim A form of self-encapsulation in which an individual experiences as real only that which exists within him- or herself.

necrophilous character In Fromm's theory, a character orientation in which an individual is attracted to that which is dead and decaying and seeks to destroy living things.

need a) In Murray's theory, a force in the brain that organizes perception, understanding, and behavior in such a way as to change an unsatisfying situation and increase satisfaction. b) In Rotter's theory, a behavior that leads to a reinforcement.

need potential In Rotter's theory, the likelihood that a set of behaviors directed toward the same goal will be used in a given situation.

need value In Rotter's theory, the importance placed on a goal.

negative identity In Erikson's theory, an identity opposed to the dominant values of one's culture.

negative reinforcement Unpleasant or aversive stimuli that can be changed or avoided by certain behavior.

NEO-PI The Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory developed by Costa and McCrae.

NEO-PI-R The Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory, Revised, developed by McCrae and Costa.

neopsychoanalytic theories Psychoanalytic theories that revise or modify Freud's original theories.

neurotic anxiety In Freud's theory, the fear that one's inner impulses cannot be controlled.

neurotic needs or trends In Horney's theory, exaggerated defense strategies that permit an individual to cope with the world.

nirvana Sanskrit for a mental state where craving and suffering have been completely extinguished.

nomothetic In Allport's theory, an approach to studying personality that considers large groups of individuals in order to infer general variables or universal principles.

nondirective A term used by Rogers to describe therapies whose course is primarily determined by the patient.

normal curve of distribution A bell-shaped curve representing many events in nature in which most events cluster around the mean.

nuclear self In Kohut's theory, a well-developed self that ideally emerges in the second year.






object a) In Freud's theory, any target through which an infant seeks to satisfy the aim of a drive. b) In object relations theory, the aim of relational needs in human development.

object relations The intrapsychic experience of early relationships with others.

objective data Data acquired through extrospection, the act of looking outward on the world as object.

objectivism The philosophical view that valid knowledge arises gradually in the course of experience through observation and experimentation.

objectivity The quality of recognizing or expressing reality without distortion by personal feeling. In test construction, construction of a test in such a way that it can be given and scored in a way that avoids the scorer's subjective bias.

observational learning In Bandura's theory, learning that occurs through observation without any direct reinforcement.

Oedipus complex In Freud's theory, an unconscious psychological conflict in which the child loves the parent of the opposite sex.

open system A concept of personality that conceives of it as having a dynamic potential for growth, reconstitution, and change through extensive transactions within itself and the environment.

operant behavior In Skinner's theory, a response that acts on the environment and is emitted without a stimulus necessarily being present.

operant conditioning In Skinner's theory, the process by which an operant response becomes associated with a reinforcement through learning.

operational definition A definition that specifies those behaviors that are included in the concept.

oral stage One of Freud's psychosexual stages, in which the major source of pleasure and potential conflict is the mouth.

organismic valuing process In Rogers's theory, a subconscious natural phenomenon that guides an individual towards productive growth experiences.

outer space In Erikson's theory, tendency on the part of boys to emphasize qualities of highness or lowness in space.

overcompensation In Adler's theory, an exaggerated effort to cover up a weakness that entails a denial rather than an acceptance of the real situation.

overt behavior Behavior that can be observed by an external observer.






paradigm A pattern or model.

paradox Two opposites that seem to negate each other but cannot exist without each other. In May's theory, two opposing things that are posited against and seem to negate each other yet cannot exist without each other. In Lazarus's therapy, the use of contradictions.

parataxic experience In Sullivan's theory, a cognitive process in which one perceives causal relations but not on the basis of reality or logic.

paraworld A world of quantified, logical, and mathematical imaginary constructs used by the scientist to draw conclusions about the everyday world.

parenting style Variations in parenting due to differences in behaviors expressing warmth and control.

participant observation In Sullivan's theory, a concept that refers to the fact that an observer of an interpersonal relationship is also a participant in it.

peak experience In Maslow's theory, an intensified experience in which there is a loss of self or transcendence of self.

penis envy In Freud's theory, the concept that women view themselves as castrated males and envy the penis.

performance phase In Dollard and Miller's therapy, a phase in which the patient acquires new, more adaptive responses and habits.

perseverative functional autonomy In Allport's theory, acts or behaviors that are repeated even though they may have lost their original function.

persona In Jung's theory, an archetype referring to one's social role and understanding of it.

personal construct In Kelly's theory, a hypothesis an individual forms in order to predict and control events, which makes the world meaningful and which is tested by later experience.

personal dispositions In Allport's theory, traits that are unique to an individual.

personal unconscious In Jung's theory, experiences of an individual's life that have been repressed or temporarily forgotten.

personality a) In social speech, one's public image. b) In Fromm's theory, the totality of an individual's psychic qualities. c) In Cattell's theory, that which permits prediction of what a person will do in a given situation. d) In Sullivan's theory, the characteristic ways in which an individual deals with other people.

person-centered therapy The most recent name for Rogers's method of psychotherapy.

personification In Sullivan's theory, a group of feelings, attitude, and thoughts that have arisen out of one's interpersonal experiences.

personology Murray's term for his study of individual persons.

phallic stage One of Freud's psychosexual stages, in which pleasurable and conflicting feelings are associated with the genital organs.

phenomenal field In Rogers's theory, the total sum of experiences an organism has.

phenomenology The study of phenomena or appearances.

phenotype An individual's observable appearance and behavior.

philosophical assumption An underlying view of the world that influences a person's thinking.

philosophy The systematic love and pursuit of wisdom.

phlegmatic One of Hippocrates temperaments, referring to an individual who is slow, solid, and apathetic.

pleasure principle In Freud's theory, the seeking of tension reduction followed by the id.

polymorphous perverse A phrase used by Freud to emphasize the point that children deviate in many ways from what is thought to be normal reproductive sexual activity.

positive psychology A branch of psychology that seeks to study and understand the complex positive behavior of people in order to emphasize the systematic building and amplifying of human strengths and virtues.

positive regard In Rogers's theory, being loved and accepted for who one is.

positive reinforcement Anything that serves to increase the frequency of a response.

positive self-regard In Rogers's theory, viewing the self favorably and with acceptance.

predictive power A criterion for evaluating rival hypotheses: the range or scope of the hypothesis.

pre-emptive construct In Kelly's theory, a construct that limits its elements to one range only.

press In Murray's theory, a force coming from the environment that helps or hinders an individual in reaching goals.

primary drive A drive associated with a physiological process that is necessary for the organism's survival.

primary modes of relating InHorney's theory, three major types of interpersonal coping strategies.

primary process In Freud's theory, a psychological activity of the id characterized by immediate wish fulfillment and the disregard of realistic concerns.

primary reinforcer A reinforcer that is inherently rewarding as it satisfies a primary drive.

proactive Referring to theories of personality that view the human being as acting on his or her own initiative rather than simply reacting.

probing response In Rogers's theory, a response that seeks further information.

proceeding In Murray's theory, a short, significant behavior pattern that has a clear beginning and ending.

productive orientation In Fromm's theory, the character type that represents the ideal of humanistic development.

projection In Freud's theory, a defense mechanism that refers to the unconscious attribution of an impulse, attitude, or behavior to someone else or some element in the environment.

projective techniques Personality tests in which an ambiguous stimulus is presented to the subject who is expected to project aspects of his or her personality into the response.

propositional construct In Kelly's theory, a construct that leaves its elements open to other constructions.

propriate functional autonomy In Allport's theory, acquired interests, values, attitudes, intentions, and life-style that are directed from the proprium and are genuinely free of earlier motivations.

propriate functions In Allport's theory, the functions of the proprium.

propriate striving In Allport's theory, a propriate function that entails projection of long-term purposes and goals and development of a plan to attain them.

proprium In Allport's theory, a term that refers to the central experiences of self-awareness that a person has as he or she grows and moves forward.

prototaxic experience In Sullivan's theory, a cognitive process in which the infant does not distinguish between the self and the external world.

psyche From the Greek term meaning "breath" or "principle of life," often translated as "soul" or "self." a) In Freud's theory, the id, ego, and superego. b) In Jung's theory, the total personality encompassing all psychological processes: thoughts, feelings, sensations, wishes, and so on.

psychoanalysis A method of therapy developed by Freud that concentrates on cultivating a transference relationship and analyzing resistances to the therapeutic process.

psychohistory The combined use of psychoanalysis and history to study individuals and groups.

psychological situation The psychological context within which an organism responds.

psychometrics The quantitative measurement of psychological characteristics through statistical techniques.

psychophysical Entailing components of both the mind and the body.

psychosexual stages In Freud's theory, a series of developmental stages through which all people pass as they move from infancy to adulthood.

psychosis An abnormal personality disturbance characterized by loss or distortion of reality testing and the inability to distinguish between reality and fantasy.

psychosocial stages A series of developmental stages proposed by Erikson to emphasize the social dimension of personality.

psychotherapy Treatment of emotional disorders by psychological means.

psychoticism One of Eysenck's personality dimensions, involving the loss or distortion of reality and the inability to distinguish between reality and fantasy.

punishment An undesirable consequence that follows a behavior and is designed to stop or change it.






Q-sort technique A card-sorting technique employed by Rogers for studying the self-concept.






radical behaviorism A label that has been given to B. F. Skinner's point of view.

random assignment In an experiment, insuring that every subject has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the treatment groups.

ratio reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which the organism is reinforced after a number of appropriate responses.

rational emotive behavior therapy Ellis's method of psychotherapy.

rationalism The philosophical view that the mind can, in and of its own accord, formulate ideas and determine their truth.

rationalization In Freud's theory, a defense mechanism that entails dealing with an emotion or impulse analytically and intellectually, thereby not involving the emotions.

reaction formation In Freud's theory, a defense mechanism in which an impulse is expressed by its opposite.

reactive Referring to theories of personality that view the human beings as primarily responding to external stimuli.

real self In Horney's theory, that which a person actually is.

reality anxiety In Freud's theory, the fear of a real danger in the external world.

reality principle In Freud's theory, the way in which the ego satisfies the impulses of the id in an appropriate manner in the external world.

reassuring response In Rogers's theory, a response that attempts to soothe feelings.

receptive orientation In Fromm's theory, a character type in which the individual reacts to the world passively.

reconstructive (or intensive) psychotherapy Therapeutic methods that seek to remove defenses and reorganize the basic personality structure.

reflective response In Rogers's theory, a response that seeks to capture the underlying feeling expressed.

reflexes Inborn automatic responses.

regression In Freud's theory, a defense mechanism that entails reverting to earlier forms of behavior.

reinforcement The process of increasing or decreasing the likelihood of a particular response.

reinforcement value In Rotter's theory, a variable that indicates the importance or preference of a particular reinforcement for an individual.

reinforcer Any event that increases or decreases the likelihood of a particular response.

relatedness In Fromm's theory, the basic need to relate to and love other people.

relational-cultural theory A perspective for understanding personality developed by scholars working out of the Stone Center at Wellesley College.

relevance One of the criteria for evaluating philosophical statements, the quality of having some bearing or being pertinent to one's view of reality.

reliability The quality of consistently yielding the same results over time.

reproduction of mothering In Chodorow's theory, a cyclical process in which women as mothers produce daughters with mothering capacities and the desire to mother.

Rep Test Role Construct Repertory Test: a device developed by Kelly to reveal personal constructs.

repression a) In Freud's theory, the key defense mechanism, which entails blocking a wish or desire from expression so that it cannot be experienced consciously or directly expressed in behavior. b) In Dollard and Miller's theory, a learned process of avoiding certain thoughts and thereby losing verbal control.

resignation solution One of Horney's three basic orientations, representing the desire to be free of others.

respondent behavior In Skinner's theory, reflexes or automatic responses elicited by a stimulus.

response A behavior that results from a stimulus. In Dollard and Miller's theory, one's reaction to a cue or stimulus.

reticular activating system The part of the brain that controls levels of arousal.

Rinzai One of the two major schools of Zen Buddhism in Japan, stressing the use of koans and zazen to reach enlightenment.

role a) In social psychology, a set of behavioral expectations set forth by a particular society and fulfilled by its members. b) In Kelly's theory, a process or behavior that a person plays based on his or her understanding of the behavior and constructs of other people.

role confusion In Erikson's theory, an inability to conceive of oneself as a productive member in one's society.

role-playing A therapeutic technique in Kelly and Beck's therapy, in which clients are asked to rehearse situations that will later happen in real life.

rootedness In Fromm's theory, the basic need to feel that one belongs in the world.

ruling type In Adler's theory, aggressive, dominating people who have little social interest or cultural perception.






sadism A disorder in which a person obtains pleasure by inflicting pain.

safeguarding tendencies In Adler's theory, compensatory mechanisms that ward off feelings of insecurity.

Saijojo Zen Zen practiced for its own sake, with no expectations and no thought of gain.

sanguine One of Hippocrates' temperaments, referring to a personality marked by sturdiness, high color, and cheerfulness.

sanzen Individual consultations between a Zen Buddhist monk and his master.

satiation Engaging in a behavior until one tires of it.

satori Japanese for "enlightenment," the goal of Zen practice.

schedule of reinforcement A program for increasing or decreasing the likelihood of a particular response.

schemas In Beck's theory, cognitive structures that consist of an individual's fundamental core beliefs and assumptions about how the world operates.

science A system or method of acquiring knowledge based on specific principles of observation and reasoning.

scientific construct An imaginary or hypothetical construct used to explain what is observed in science.

scientific (or empirical) generalization An inductive conclusion based on a number of different instances of observation.

scientific method A method of inquiry that consists of five steps: recognizing a problem, developing a hypothesis, making a prediction, testing the hypothesis, and drawing a conclusion.

scientific statement A statement about the world based on observations arising from a currently held paradigm.

scientism Exclusive reliance on a narrow conception of science.

secondary dispositions In Allport's theory, more specific, focused tendencies of an individual that tend to be situational in character.

secondary drive A drive that is learned or acquired on the basis of a primary drive.

secondary processes In Freud's theory, higher intellectual functions that enable the ego to establish suitable courses of action and test them for their effectiveness.

secondary reinforcer A reinforcer that is originally neutral but that acquires reward value on the basis of association with a primary reinforcer.

security operation In Sullivan's theory, an interpersonal device that a person uses to minimize anxiety and enhance security.

self a) In Jung's theory, a central archetype representing the striving for unity of all parts of the personality. b) In Rogers's theory, the psychological processes that govern a person's behavior.

self-actualization In the theories of Rogers and Maslow, a dynamic within the organism leading it to actualize, fulfill, and enhance its inherent potentialities.

self-analysis In Horney's theory, a systematic effort at self-understanding conducted without the aid of a professional.

self-as-rational coper In Allport's theory, a propriate function that entails the perception of oneself as an active problem-solving agent.

self-concept In Rogers's theory, a portion of the phenomenal field that has become differentiated and is composed of perceptions and values of "I" or "me."

self-construct In Kelly's theory, perception of similarities in one's behavior based on role relationships with other people.

self-effacing solution One of Horney's three basic orientations toward life, which represents an appeal to be loved by others.

self-efficacy In Bandura's theory, a person's perception of his or her effectiveness.

self-esteem In Allport's theory, a propriate function that entails feelings of pride as one develops the ability to do things.

self-expansive solution One of Horney's three basic orientations toward life, which represents a striving for mastery.

self-extension In Allport's theory, a propriate function that entails a sense of possession.

self-identity In Allport's theory, a propriate function that entails an awareness of inner sameness and continuity.

self-image In Allport's theory, a propriate function that entails a sense of the expectations of others and its comparison with one's own behavior.

self-love In Fromm's theory, love of self that is a prerequisite for love of others.

self-orientation A new character type, informed by Fromm's theory, that is highly narcissistic.

self-realization In Jung's theory, a drive within the self to realize, fulfill, and enhance one's maximum human potentialities.

self-sentiment In Cattell's theory, an environmental-mold dynamic source trait composing a person's self-image.

self-system In Bandura's theory, cognitive structures that underlie the perception, evaluation, and regulation of behavior. In Sullivan's theory a dynamism made up of security operations that defend the self against anxiety.

sensation One of Jung's functions, referring to sense perception of the world.

sense of identity In Fromm's theory, the need to be aware of oneself as an individual.

sentiment In Cattell's theory, an environmental-mold dynamic source trait.

separation-individuation process A sequence of stages posited by Mahler through which the ego passes in the process of becoming an individual.

shadow In Jung's theory, an archetype that encompasses one's animalistic and unsocial side.

shaping In Skinner's theory, a process by which an organism's behavior is gradually molded until it approximates the desired behavior.

shikantaza Japanese for "just sitting," the form of zazen practice stressed particularly in the Soto Zen tradition.

shinkeishitsu A Japanese label for a group of neuroses overlapping with the anxiety disorders in the DSM-IV classification.

Shojo Zen Zen practiced for personal enlightenment or for relief from suffering.

simplicity A criterion for evaluating rival hypotheses: the quality of being simple and avoiding complicated explanations.

skandha Sanskrit for "aggregate" or "heap." The five skandhas are form, feelings, perceptions, impulses, and consciousness.

slips In Freud's theory, bungled acts, such as a slip of the tongue, a slip of the pen, or a memory lapse.

social interest In Adler's theory, an urge in human nature to adapt oneself to the conditions of one's environment and society.

social learning theories Theories that attempt to explain personality in terms of learned behavior within a social context.

social psychoanalytic theories Psychoanalytic theories that emphasize the role of social forces in shaping personality.

socially useful type In Adler's theory, people who have a great deal of social interest and activity.

sociotropic dimension In Beck's theory, a personality dimension characterized by dependence on interpersonal relationships and needs for closeness and nurturance.

somatotonia In Sheldon's theory, a component of temperament characterized by a predominance of muscular activity and vigorous bodily assertiveness.

somatotype Sheldon's term for the expression of body type through three numbers that indicate the degree of each physical component.

Soto One of the two major schools of Zen Buddhism in Japan, stressing the practice of zazen as shikantaza and the identity of practice and enlightenment.

source traits In Cattell's theory, underlying variables that determine surface manifestations.

species-specific behavior Complex automatic behaviors that occur in all members of a species.

specific responses In Eysenck's theory, behaviors that we can actually observe, such as someone answering a phone.

specification equation An equation by which Cattell suggests we may eventually be able to predict human behavior.

splitting In object relations therapy, separating an object image into opposites.

spontaneous recovery Following extinction, the return of a learned behavior.

standardization Pre-testing of a large and representative sample in order to determine test norms.

statement An utterance that makes an assertion or a denial.

statistics The application of mathematical principles to the description and analysis of measurements.

stereotype Prejudgment that we make about people on the basis of their membership in certain groups.

stimulus An agent that rouses or excites a response.

structural profile In Lazarus's therapy, a quantitative assessment of the relative involvement of each of the elements of the BASIC-ID in a client.

structuralism Early school of psychology that suggested that psychology study conscious experience.

stupidity-misery syndrome Dollard and Miller's term for a neurosis.

style of life In Adler's theory, the specific ways in which an individual seeks to attain the goal of superiority.

subception In Rogers's theory, a discriminative evaluative response of the organism that precedes conscious perception.

subjective data Data acquired through introspection, the act of looking inward on the self as subject.

subjectivism A philosophical view that constructs of knowledge are creations of the self.

sublimation In Freud's theory, a defense mechanism that refers to translating a wish, the direct expression of which is socially unacceptable, into socially acceptable behavior.

subsidiation In Cattell's theory, the principle that certain traits are secondary to other traits.

successive approximations In Dollard and Miller's therapy, the interpretations of the therapist that provide increasingly more accurate labels for the patient's responses.

superego In Freud's theory, a function of the personality that represents introjected and internalized values, ideals, and moral standards.

superiority complex In Adler's theory, a neurotic pattern in which an individual exaggerates his or her importance.

supportive psychotherapy Therapeutic measures that seek to strengthen adaptive instincts and defenses.

surface traits In Cattell's theory, clusters of overt behavior responses that appear to go together.

sutra Sanskrit for a sermon or discourse, usually of the Buddha.

symbiotic relationship In Fromm's theory, a relationship in which one or the other of two persons loses or never attains his or her independence.

symbol An element in a dream that stands for something else.

synchronicity A phenomenon in which events are related to one another through simultaneity and meaning.

syntality In Cattell's theory, the behavior of a group as a whole or its "group personality."

syntaxic experience In Sullivan's theory, the highest level of cognitive activity, entailing the use of symbols and relying on consensual validation.






talking phase In Dollard and Miller's therapy, a phase in which neurotic habits are studied, examined, and identified so that the patient may unlearn them.

Tao A Chinese term for "Way" or "Path"; the absolute and ineffable nature of ultimate reality.

Taoism A Chinese philosophy and way of life based on the teachings of Lao-tse (ca. 4th century B.C.), stressing harmony with the Tao.

T-data In Cattell's theory, objective tests.

technical eclecticism In Lazarus's therapy, deriving treatment methods from many sources without necessarily agreeing with the theories that generated them.

telos A purpose or goal.

temperament traits In Cattell's theory, traits that determine how a person behaves in order to obtain his or her goal.

Thanatos In Freud's theory, the death impulse or drive, the source of aggression, the ultimate resolution of all of life's tension in death.

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) A projective test consisting of ambiguous pictures to which a subject is asked to respond.

theory A set of abstract concepts made about a group of facts or events to explain them.

therapy The practical application of psychology in ways that will assist individuals.

Theravada Pali for "the teaching of the Elders," the form of Buddhism dominant in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia. Sometimes referred to as the Hinayana.

thinking One of Jung's functions, referring to giving meaning and understanding to the world.

thresholds In Lazarus's theory, tolerance levels for pain, frustration, or stress.

token economy A community based on Skinnerian principles in which individuals are rewarded for appropriate behavior with tokens that can be exchanged for various privileges.

tracking In Lazarus's therapy, paying careful attention to the "firing order" of the different modalities.

trait Continuous dimension that an individual can be seen to possess to a certain degree. a) In Allport's theory, a determining tendency to respond that represents the ultimate reality of psychological organization. b) In Cattell's theory, an imaginary construct or inference from overt behavior that helps to explain it.

trait theories Theories that conceive of personality as being composed primarily of traits.

transcendence a) In Jung's theory of self-realization, a process of integrating the diverse systems of the self toward the goal of wholeness and identification with all humanity. b) In Fromm's theory, the basic human need to rise above the accidental and passive creatureliness of animal existence and become an active creator.

transference In Freudian psychoanalysis, a process in which the patient projects onto the analyst emotional attitudes felt as a child toward important persons.

transpersonal psychology A branch of psychology concerned with those states and processes in which people experience a deeper or wider sense of who they are and a sense of greater connectedness with others, nature, and a "spiritual" dimension.

triadic reciprocal causation In Bandura's theory, the regulation of behavior by an interplay of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors.

Tripitaka Sanskrit for the "three baskets" or collections of Buddhist scriptures.

trust versus mistrust Erikson's psychosocial stage, corresponding to Freud's oral stage, in which infants face the task of trusting the world.

typology Division of human beings into distinct, separate categories.

tyranny of the should In Horney's theory, creating false needs instead of meeting genuine ones.






unconditional positive regard In Rogers's theory, positive regard that is not contingent on any specific behaviors.

unconditioned response A reflex or automatic response to a stimulus.

unconditioned stimulus A stimulus that normally elicits a particular reflex or automatic response.

unconscious process a) In Freud's theory, processes of which a person is unaware because they have been repressed or never permitted to become conscious. b) In Dollard and Miller's theory, drives or cues of which we are unaware because they are unlabeled or repressed.

usefulness a) In scientific theorizing, the ability of a hypothesis to generate predictions about experiences that we might observe. b) In Adler's theory, the ability of a goal to foster productive living and enhance one's life.






validating evidence Observable consequences that follow an experiment designed to test a hypothesis and are used to support a construct or theory.

validity The quality of measuring what a construct is supposed to measure.

variable A characteristic that can be measured or controlled.

variable schedule of reinforcement A schedule of reinforcement in which the time period or number of responses prior to reinforcement varies.

verifiability Capable of being tested by a method that ultimately relies on empirical observation.

vijnana Sanskrit for "consciousness."

virtues In Erikson's theory, ego strengths that develop out of each psychosocial stage.

visceral brain The limbic system and the hypothalamus.






Walden II Skinner's name for his utopian comunity.

wish fulfillment In Freud's theory, a primary-process activity that seeks to reduce tension by forming an image of the object that would satisfy needs.

wishes In Freud's theory, desires that may be rendered unconscious if they go against a person's ego-ideal.

withdrawal-destructiveness relationship In Fromm's theory, a relationship characterized by distance, apathy, or aggression.

womb envy In Horney's theory, the concept that men and boys experience jealousy over women's ability to bear and nurse children.






yang Chinese Taoist term for the positive, masculine, active, external aspect of the complementary yin and yang polarity.

yin Chinese Taoist term for the negative, feminine, passive, internal aspect of the complementary yin and yang polarity.







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