Child Development - A Thematic Approach
, Fifth Edition
Behavior carried out to help another without expectation of reward.
Conceptual process, starting in the early preschool years, in which the child begins to classify himself or herself according to easily observable categories such as sex, age, or physical capacities.
In Freudian theory, the part of the superego that defines unacceptable behaviors and actions, usually as also defined by the parents.
In Kohlberg’s theory, the second level of moral reasoning, in which the child conforms to the norms of the majority and wishes to preserve the social order.
Delay of gratification
Capacity to wait before performing a tempting activity or attaining some highly desired outcome; a measure of ability to regulate one’s own behavior.
Inborn desire theorized by Robert White to be the basis for the infant’s and child’s efforts to master and gain control of the environment.
In Freudian theory, the part of the superego that defines the positive standards for which an individual strives; acquired via parental rewarding of desired behaviors.
An understanding and sharing of the feelings of others.
The sense of belonging to a particular cultural group.
Broad, coherent, internalized view of who a person is and what a person wants to be, believes, and values that emerges during adolescence.
Period, usually during adolescence, characterized by considerable uncertainty about the self and the role the individual is to fulfill in society.
Young child’s belief that punishment will inevitably follow a transgression.
Parental control technique that relies on the extensive use of reasoning and explanation as well as the arousal of empathic feelings.
Belief that one has little control over situations, perhaps because of lack of ability or inconsistent outcomes.
Belief that achievements are based on one’s own efforts rather than on luck or other factors beyond one’s control.
In Piaget’s theory of moral development, the first stage of moral reasoning, in which moral judgments are made on the basis of the consequences of an act. Also called heteronomy.
In Piaget’s theory of moral development, the second stage of moral reasoning, in which moral judgments are made on the basis of the actor’s intentions. Also called autonomy.
Morality of care and responsibility
Tendency to make moral judgments on the basis of concern for others.
Morality of justice
Tendency to make moral judgments on the basis of reason and abstract principles of equity.
In Kohlberg’s theory, the third level of moral reasoning, in which laws are seen as the result of a social contract and individual principles of conscience may emerge.
Parental control technique that relies on the use of forceful commands, physical punishment, and removal of material objects or privileges.
In Kohlberg’s theory, the first level of moral reasoning, in which morality is motivated by the avoidance of punishments and attainment of rewards.
Positive social action performed to benefit others.
Realization of being an independent, unique, stable, and self-reflective entity; the beliefs, knowledge, feelings, and characteristics the individual ascribes to himself or herself.
Perceptions, conceptions, and values one holds about oneself.
Ability to comply with sociocultural prescriptions concerning ethical or moral behavior.
One’s feelings of worth; extent to which one senses one’s attributes and actions are good, desired, and valued.
Process by which children come to control their own behaviors in accordance with the standards of their caregivers and community, especially in the absence of other adults.
Process in which individuals define themselves in relation to the skills, attributes, and qualities of others; an important contributor to self-concept during middle childhood.
Behavioral rules that regulate social interactions, such as dress codes and degrees of formality in speech.
In Freudian theory, a mental structure that monitors socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior.