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Textbook Site for:
Social Psychology , Sixth Edition
Sharon S. Brehm - Indiana University
Saul Kassin - Williams College
Steven Fein - Williams College
Chapter Outlines - Aggression

I. What Is Aggression?
A. Aggression and Violence
B. Anger and Hostility
C. Instrumental Aggression and Emotional Aggression
II. Cultural and Gender Differences
A. Cultural Variation
1. Comparisons across societies
2. Subcultures within a country
B. Gender Differences
1. Overt, physical aggression
2. Indirect, relational aggression
III. Origins of Aggression
A. Is Aggression Innate?
1. Instinct theories
a) Freud’s concept of the death instinct
b) Lorenz’s conception of aggression as necessary for survival
2. Evolutionary psychology
a) genetic survival
b) gender differences
c) inhibition of aggression against those who are genetically related
d) criticisms and rebuttals
3. Behavior genetics
B. Is Aggression Learned?
1. The effects of rewards and punishments
2. Social learning theory: The role of models
3. Socialization
a) as a factor in gender differences in aggression
b) as a factor in cultural differences in aggression
C. Nature Versus Nurture: A False Debate?
IV. Situational Influences on Aggression
A. Frustration: Aggression as a Drive
1. The frustration-aggression hypothesis
a) frustration is produced when a person's progress toward a goal is interrupted
b) all aggression is caused by frustration
c) displacement occurs when one cannot aggress against the source of the frustration
d) catharsis as the reduction of the motive to aggress
2. The frustration-aggression hypothesis: Does the evidence support it?
3. Frustration-aggression theory revised
B. Negative Affect
1. Heat and aggression: Losing your cool
2. Positive affect: Reducing retaliation
C. Arousal: "Wired" for Action
1. Arousal-affect model
2. Reducing arousal can reduce aggression
D. Thought: Automatic and Deliberate
1. Leonard Berkowitz's cognitive neoassociation analysis
2. Situational cues: the weapons effect
3. Higher-order cognitive controls
4. Alcohol
E. Situational Influences: Putting It All Together
V. Media Effects: Scenes of Violence
A. Violence in TV, Movies, Music Lyrics, and Video Games
1. Extent of media violence
2. Linking media violence to real-world violence
3. Immediate effects
4. Long-term effects
B. Pornographic Materials
1. Nonviolent pornography
a) the type and intensity of the emotion elicited
b) reducing restraints against male-to-female aggression
c) habituation
2. Violent pornography
a) gender specificity of the effects
b) effects on men’s attitudes
c) the “rapist’s profile”
d) correlation between consumption of violent pornography and endorsing anti-women attitudes
VI. Intimate Violence: Trust Betrayed
A. Sexual Aggression Among College Students
1. Acquaintance rape
2. Gender
3. Alcohol
4. Attitudes toward rape and toward women
B. Physical Aggression Between Partners
1. Wife-to-husband abuse and husband-to-wife abuse
2. Multiple factors
C. Child Abuse
1. The cycle of family violence
VII. Reducing Violence
A. Multiple Causes, Multiple Cures
1. Situational and sociocultural factors
2. Media effects
3. Intimate violence


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