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Textbook Site for:
Social Psychology , Sixth Edition
Sharon S. Brehm - Indiana University
Saul Kassin - Williams College
Steven Fein - Williams College
Chapter Outlines - Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

I. Stereotypes
A. How Stereotypes Form
1. Social categorization
2. Ingroups versus outgroups
3. Sociocultural and motivational factors
4. Implicit personal theories about groups
5. Are stereotypes ever accurate?
B. How Stereotypes Survive and Self-Perpetuate
1. Illusory correlations
2. Attributions
3. Subtyping and contrast effects
4. Confirmation biases and self-fulfilling prophecies
C. Is Stereotyping Inevitable? Automatic Versus Intentional Processes
1. Stereotypes as (sometimes) automatic
a) when perceivers are primed to think even briefly of particular aspects of a popular stereotype, they are likely to automatically activate the general stereotype in their minds
b) when perceivers are exposed to information or cues about a stereotyped group, as opposed to the content of the stereotype itself, stereotype activation is not inevitable
c) when perceivers are exposed to a member of a stereotyped group, stereotype activation can depend on whether they pay attention to the group member
d) perceiver’s goals can make stereotype activation more likely
2. Motivation: Fueling activation or putting on the brakes
3. From activation to application: When are activated stereotypes applied?
D. "41 Shots" Revisited: Did Racial Stereotypes Make the Police More Likely to Shoot Amadou Diallo?
II. Prejudice
A. Intergroup Conflict
1. Robbers Cave: Setting the stage
2. Realistic conflict theory
B. Social Identity Theory
1. Basic predictions
a) threats to one’s self-esteem heighten the need for ingroup favoritism
b) expressions of ingroup favoritism enhance one’s self-esteem
2. Situational, individual, and cultural differences
a) strength of ingroup identification
b) size of one’s group
c) status relative to others in the ingroup
d) collective self-esteem
3. Reactions to low status
a) risk a loss of self-esteem
b) distance yourself from your group
c) de-emphasize the domain in which one’s group is low status
d) maintain high status within the group
C. Implicit Theories and Ideologies
1. Social dominance orientation
2. System justification
III. Sexism
A. Gender Stereotypes: Blue for Boys, Pink for Girls
1. Gender stereotypes are widespread
2. Gender stereotypes are learned early
3. Gender stereotypes are applied early
B. Why Do Gender Stereotypes Endure?
1. Media images and popular culture
2. Social role theory
C. Sex Discrimination: A Double Standard?
1. Devaluation of women’s writing
2. Gender-typing in hiring
D. Ambivalent Sexism
IV. Racism
A. Going Under Cover: Modern and Implicit Racism
1. Modern racism
2. Implicit racism
a) the bona fide pipeline
b) the Implicit Association Test (IAT)
B. Interracial Perceptions and Interactions
V. A Threat in the Air: Effects on Stigmatized Targets
A. Perceiving Discrimination
B. Stereotype Threat and Academic Achievement
1. Threats to African Americans and women
2. Diversity of stereotype threats
VI. Reducing Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
A. Intergroup Contact
1. School desegregation: the great experiment
2. The contact hypothesis: a re-examination
a) equal status
b) personal interactions across groups
c) cooperative activities
d) supportive social norms
B. The Jigsaw Classroom
C. Decategorization and Recategorization
D. Changing Cultures and Motivation