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Textbook Site for:
Social Psychology , Sixth Edition
Sharon S. Brehm - Indiana University
Saul Kassin - Williams College
Steven Fein - Williams College
Learning Objectives - Business

You should be able to do each of the following by the conclusion of Chapter 13.
  1. Define industrial/organizational psychology. Explain the Hawthorne effect and its role in triggering interest in industrial/organizational psychology. (pp. 479-481)

  2. Describe the traditional employment interview. Cite reasons for which traditional employment interviews can have positive and negative effects on the accuracy of personnel selection. Explain the role of expectations in job interviews. Discuss the effectiveness of alternatives to the traditional job interview, including the use of polygraphs, integrity tests, structured interviews, and assessment centers. (pp. 481-485)

  3. Discuss the debate concerning affirmative action in hiring and promotion. Discuss the conditions under which affirmative action should be most and least likely to lead to negative reactions and consequences. (pp. 486-489)

  4. Define performance appraisals. Differentiate objective from subjective criteria for these appraisals. Explain the potential problems associated with supervisors’ evaluations of their subordinates, including the halo effect, the contrast effect, and the restriction of range problem. Describe the problems associated with self-evaluations. (pp. 489-491)

  5. Explain how the timing of evaluations, the number of evaluators, and the use of training programs can each play a role in improving the accuracy of performance appraisals. Explain the purpose and the three principles of the due process model of performance appraisal. (p. 492)

  6. Compare and contrast views of leadership that emphasize a trait approach with those that emphasize interactions between the person and situation. Describe the “great person theory” of leadership. Explain Fiedler’s contingency model of leadership as well as Hollander’s transactional model. Explain what is meant by the notion of transformational leaders, and summarize how they differ from transactional leaders. (pp. 493-497)

  7. Explain what is meant by “glass ceilings” and “glass walls.” Describe similarities and differences between women and men in terms of leadership, and discuss reactions to their leadership. Discuss some of the problems faced by racial and ethnic minorities in terms of their chances for advancement in the workplace. (pp. 497-499)

  8. Summarize the economic factors that affect employee satisfaction. Explain Vroom’s expectancy theory, and give examples of how it can be applied successfully. (pp. 499-500)

  9. Distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Indicate the extent to which employees’ perceptions of rewards (as informational or controlling) moderate the effects of these rewards on intrinsic motivation. Summarize equity theory and the effect of equity on worker motivation. Cite reasons for gender differences in equity expectations. (pp. 500-504)

  10. Explain the role of stock movements in investor strategies. In particular, identify the role of attributions in investor behavior. (pp. 504-506)

  11. Explain how investors can become entrapped by their initial commitments, and identify factors that can prevent such entrapment from happening. Define the sunk-cost principle. (pp. 506-508)



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