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Social Psychology , Fifth Edition
Sharon S. Brehm - Indiana University Bloomington
Saul M. Kassin - Williams College
Steven Fein - Williams College
Learning Objectives - Group Processes

You should be able to do each of the following by the conclusion of Chapter 8.
  1. Distinguish between a group and a collective. Explain how the presence of others affects people's performance on easy and hard tasks, and how Zajonc accounts for these effects. Describe three alternative accounts for this phenomenon. (pp. 257-261)

  2. Describe how working with others on a task affects people's productivity. Identify factors that can reduce the likelihood that people will engage in social loafing. Explain how the presence of others can lead to increased arousal and social facilitation or decreased arousal and social loafing, depending on whether each member of the group is evaluated separately or the group is evaluated as a whole. (pp. 261-264)

  3. Define deindividuation. Explain how being in a crowd can lead people to engage in destructive behaviors. Describe how environmental cues and a sense of identity can affect this process. (pp. 264-267)

  4. Describe the reasons that people join a group, and discuss the process of adjustment to a new group. Explain the processes of group development. (pp. 267-269)

  5. Describe roles, norms, and cohesiveness, and explain their influence on group behavior. Summarize research on the relationship between cohesiveness and group performance. (pp. 269-271)

  6. Describe group polarization and delineate the processes that can create it. (pp. 271-273)

  7. Define groupthink. Describe its antecedents, behavioral symptoms, and consequences. Explicate recent work on groupthink addressing the role of cohesiveness and personality of group members. Address how groupthink can be prevented. (pp. 273-278)

  8. Describe the different types of tasks that groups perform, and the relationship between group performance and the type of task in which a group is engaged. Discuss goal setting in groups, and the advantages and disadvantages of brainstorming. (pp. 278-280)

  9. Describe the roles of biased sampling, communication networks, information-processing biases, and diversity in group communication and performance. (pp. 280-285)

  10. Define a social dilemma. Describe the prisoner's dilemma and resource dilemmas. Discuss mixed motives in the context of these dilemmas, and delineate psychological and structural factors that influence behavior in social dilemmas. (pp. 285-290)

  11. Discuss how threat capacity and perceptions of others can lead to the escalation of group conflict. (pp. 290-292)

  12. Explain how GRIT, negotiating, and finding common ground can lead to the reduction of group conflict. Distinguish between an arbitrator and a mediator. (pp. 292-296)

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