You should be able to do each of the following by the conclusion of Chapter 11.
- Define aggression, anger, hostility, and violence. Distinguish between instrumental aggression and emotional aggression. (pp. 391-393)
- Identify differences in aggression that exist across cultures and across societies within those cultures. Explain the accounts that are given for these differences. (pp. 393-396)
- Explain the differences in aggression between men and women. In doing so, make reference to the different types of aggression (overt and relational) in which men and women engage. (pp. 396-398)
- Explain instinct theories of aggression and the evolutionary account. Describe the role of genetics in aggression, as well as that of hormones and neurotransmitters. (pp. 398-402)
- Define positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. Describe the conditions under which punishment should be most effective. Explain whether corporal punishment is effective. (pp. 402-403)
- Summarize the social learning theory of aggression. Discuss the influence of socialization on gender differences and on cultural variation in aggression. Define the "culture of honor." Comment on the current state of the "nature versus nurture" debate as it relates to aggression. (pp. 403-407)
- Explain the frustration-aggression hypothesis in terms of the concepts of displacement and catharsis. Identify problems with this hypothesis. Summarize Berkowitz's reformulation of the hypothesis. (pp. 407-409)
- Explain the effects of negative and positive affect on aggression. Describe the effects of temperature on aggression. Describe the negative affect escape model. Explain the process of excitation transfer, and discuss its implications for aggression. Summarize the arousal-affect model, and discuss how it integrates findings linking affect to aggression and the predictions it makes about what combinations of arousal and affect facilitate aggression. (pp. 409-412)
- Describe Berkowitz's cognitive-neoassociation analysis, and discuss the weapons effect and other aggression-enhancing situational cues. Explain how higher-order cognitive processes can facilitate or inhibit aggression. Consider the roles of mitigating information and of alcohol in these processes. Define multisystematic therapy. (pp. 413-416)
- Summarize the immediate as well as long-term effects on aggression of exposure to nonsexual violence in the media. Explain the concepts of habituation and cultivation, and the effects of prosocial television. (pp. 416-420)
- Define pornography, and distinguish between violent and nonviolent pornography. Explain the conditions under which brief exposure to nonviolent pornography should increase or decrease aggression. Describe the effects of reducing constraints against male-to-female aggression after exposure to nonviolent pornography, and discuss the impact of dehumanizing pornography. (pp. 420-423)
- Summarize the findings concerning the effects of exposure to violent pornography on male-to-male and male-to-female aggression. Explain why exposure to violent pornography can have such strong effects on aggression. Describe the effects of such exposure on men's attitudes toward women, and discuss the implications of these attitudes for sexual aggression. Also, describe the kinds of information or education that might reduce these effects.
- Discuss the prevalence and consequences of violence among intimates, such as sexual aggression among college students, physical aggression between partners, and child abuse. Discuss how gender, alcohol, rape myth attitudes, and orientations toward sexual relations are associated with sexual aggression among college students. Discuss effective ways of reducing violence in the family, thereby breaking cycles of violence. (pp. 423-429)