Capítulo 8: La comida y los deportes
Gramática para la comunicación I
I. Expressing Likes, Dislikes, and Opinions:
Using Verbs Like gustar
In Chapter 2, you learned how to use the verb gustar.
¿Te gusta el festival?
Nos gustan las carretas de Sarchí.
1. Here are some other verbs that function like gustar.
*NOTE: Use the singular verb form when one or more infinitives follow.
2. The verb parecer (to seem) follows a similar pattern to gustar, but is generally
used with an adjective. It is used in the singular when followed by a singular
adjective or an idea introduced by que and in the plural when followed by
a plural adjective.
Notice the meaning of parecer when it is used in a question with the word qué.
II. Avoiding Redundancies: Combining
Direct- and Indirect-Object Pronouns
In the conversation, you heard Vicente's father say to his son, "Vamos a darte tu
regalo de cumpleaños. Te lo compramos porque sabemos que es algo que te
gusta." In the last sentence, to whom and to what do you think the words te and
If you said to Vicente and to the gift, you were correct.
In Chapters 6 and 7 you learned how to use the indirect- and the direct-object
pronouns separately. Remember that the subject performs the action, the indirect
object tells for whom or to whom the action is done, and the direct object is the
person or thing that is directly affected by the action and answers the question
what or whom.
1. When you use both an indirect- and a direct-object pronoun in the same sentence,
the indirect-object pronoun immediately precedes the direct-object pronoun.
2. The indirect-object pronouns le and les become se when combined
with the direct-object pronouns lo, la,
los, and las. The chart on the right
shows all possible combinations.
NOTE: Never use me lo, me la, etc., with verbs like gustar since the noun following
the verb is not a direct object, but rather the subject of the verb.
3. Remember that object pronouns either precede a conjugated verb or are
attached to the end of an infinitive or present participle.
III. Using ya and todavía
1. Ya means already or now. Context helps determine which meaning is being
2. Ya no means no longer, not anymore.
1. Todavía means still.
Todavía tengo problemas. I still have problems.
2. Todavía no means not yet.
Gramática para la comunicación II
Describing in the Past: The Imperfect
In the conversation, when talking about tennis, Vicente said, "Practicaba todos
los días..." and Teresa responded, "Yo también jugaba mucho." In these sentences,
do the verbs practicaba and jugaba refer to past actions that occurred
only once or to habitual past actions?
If your response is habitual past actions, you are correct.
As you have already learned, the preterit in Spanish is used to talk about
completed past actions. There is another set of past tense forms, the imperfect,
whose main function is to describe and to report habitual actions.
A. Formation of the Imperfect
1. To form the imperfect of all -ar verbs, add -aba to the stem.
NOTE: All -ar verbs in the nosotros form have an accent.
2. To form the imperfect of -er and -ir verbs, add -ía to the stem.
NOTE: Accents are used in -er and -ir verbs to break diphthongs.
3. There are only three irregular verbs in the imperfect.
B. Using the Imperfect
1. As you learned in Chapter 7, the imperfect (el imperfecto) is always used
when telling time and one's age in the past.
2. The imperfect is also used in the following situations.
NOTE: *Había means both there was and there were.
**Habitual or recurring past actions can be expressed in English with the simple
past, "used to + verb" or "would + verb":
Every day we swam and played at the beach.
Every day we used to swim and play at the beach.
Every day we would swim and play at the beach.