Home   Home
Instructors Students ReviewersAuthors Booksellers   Contact Us
Introduction
English-Spanish Glossary
Spanish-English Glossary
Grammar Reference
Capítulo 1
Capítulo 2
Capítulo 3
Capítulo 4
Capítulo 5
Capítulo 6
Capítulo 7
Capítulo 8
Capítulo 9
Capítulo 10
Capítulo 11
Capítulo 12
Capítulo 13
Capítulo 14
Capítulo 15
Capítulo 16
Capítulo 17

Verb Charts

 

Capítulo 8: La comida y los deportes

Gramática para la comunicación I

I. Expressing Likes, Dislikes, and Opinions: Using Verbs Like gustar

In Chapter 2, you learned how to use the verb gustar.

¿Te gusta el festival?
Nos gustan las carretas de Sarchí.

1. Here are some other verbs that function like gustar.

*NOTE: Use the singular verb form when one or more infinitives follow.

2. The verb parecer (to seem) follows a similar pattern to gustar, but is generally used with an adjective. It is used in the singular when followed by a singular adjective or an idea introduced by que and in the plural when followed by a plural adjective.

Notice the meaning of parecer when it is used in a question with the word qué.

II. Avoiding Redundancies: Combining Direct- and Indirect-Object Pronouns

In the conversation, you heard Vicente's father say to his son, "Vamos a darte tu regalo de cumpleaños. Te lo compramos porque sabemos que es algo que te gusta." In the last sentence, to whom and to what do you think the words te and lo refer?

If you said to Vicente and to the gift, you were correct.

In Chapters 6 and 7 you learned how to use the indirect- and the direct-object pronouns separately. Remember that the subject performs the action, the indirect object tells for whom or to whom the action is done, and the direct object is the person or thing that is directly affected by the action and answers the question what or whom.

1. When you use both an indirect- and a direct-object pronoun in the same sentence, the indirect-object pronoun immediately precedes the direct-object pronoun.

2. The indirect-object pronouns le and les become se when combined with the direct-object pronouns lo, la, los, and las. The chart on the right shows all possible combinations.

NOTE: Never use me lo, me la, etc., with verbs like gustar since the noun following the verb is not a direct object, but rather the subject of the verb.

3. Remember that object pronouns either precede a conjugated verb or are attached to the end of an infinitive or present participle.

III. Using ya and todavía

A. Ya

1. Ya means already or now. Context helps determine which meaning is being conveyed.

2. Ya no means no longer, not anymore.

B. Todavía

1. Todavía means still.

Todavía tengo problemas.      I still have problems.

2. Todavía no means not yet.

Gramática para la comunicación II

Describing in the Past: The Imperfect

In the conversation, when talking about tennis, Vicente said, "Practicaba todos los días..." and Teresa responded, "Yo también jugaba mucho." In these sentences, do the verbs practicaba and jugaba refer to past actions that occurred only once or to habitual past actions?

If your response is habitual past actions, you are correct.

As you have already learned, the preterit in Spanish is used to talk about completed past actions. There is another set of past tense forms, the imperfect, whose main function is to describe and to report habitual actions.

A. Formation of the Imperfect

1. To form the imperfect of all -ar verbs, add -aba to the stem.

NOTE: All -ar verbs in the nosotros form have an accent.

2. To form the imperfect of -er and -ir verbs, add -ía to the stem.

NOTE: Accents are used in -er and -ir verbs to break diphthongs.

3. There are only three irregular verbs in the imperfect.

B. Using the Imperfect

1. As you learned in Chapter 7, the imperfect (el imperfecto) is always used when telling time and one's age in the past.

2. The imperfect is also used in the following situations.

NOTE: *Había means both there was and there were.
**Habitual or recurring past actions can be expressed in English with the simple past, "used to + verb" or "would + verb":

Every day we swam and played at the beach.
Every day we used to swim and play at the beach.
Every day we would swim and play at the beach.