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World Civilizations Resource Center


Primary Sources

Primary Sources

TitleDetails
The Epic of Gilgamesh: A Great Flood
Date: 2700-2500 B.C.E.
Author: Anonymous
Description: Epic
Type: Text
The Epic of Gilgamesh: A Great Flood
Date: 2700-2500 B.C.E.
Author: Anonymous
Description: Epic
Type: Text
The Mandate of Heaven: The Classic of History
Date: c. 1700 B.C.E.
Author: Anonymous
Description: Socio-political Philosophy
Type: Text
The Mandate of Heaven: The Classic of History
Date: c. 1700 B.C.E.
Author: Anonymous
Description: Socio-political Philosophy
Type: Text
The Analects
Date: c. 500 B.C.E.
Author: Confucius
Description: Moral Teachings
Type: Text
The Analects
Date: c. 500 B.C.E.
Author: Confucius
Description: Moral Teachings
Type: Text
A Dead Sea Scroll: The Essenes' Manual of Discipline
Date: 50 B.C.E.- A.D.100
Author: Anonymous
Description: Religious Teaching
Type: Text
A Dead Sea Scroll: The Essenes' Manual of Discipline
Date: 50 B.C.E.- A.D.100
Author: Anonymous
Description: Religious Teaching
Type: Text
A Journey to the Underworld: The Odyssey
Date: c. 1200 B.C.E.
Author: Homer
Description: Epic
Type: Text
A Journey to the Underworld: The Odyssey
Date: c. 1200 B.C.E.
Author: Homer
Description: Epic
Type: Text
A Geocentric Explanation: The Earth Must Be Stationary Existence
Date: A.D. 120 - A.D. 140
Author: Ptolemy
Description: Astronomical Study
Type: Text
A Geocentric Explanation: The Earth Must Be Stationary Existence
Date: A.D. 120 - A.D. 140
Author: Ptolemy
Description: Astronomical Study
Type: Text
Hindu Search for Divine Reality: The Upanishads
Date: c. 800 B.C.E
Author: Anonymous
Description: Religious Teachings
Type: Text
Hindu Search for Divine Reality: The Upanishads
Date: c. 800 B.C.E
Author: Anonymous
Description: Religious Teachings
Type: Text
Two Lessons
Date: c. 200 B.C.E
Author: The Buddha
Description: Religious Teachings
Type: Text
Two Lessons
Date: c. 200 B.C.E
Author: The Buddha
Description: Religious Teachings
Type: Text
Description of India
Date: 1030
Author: Abu'l Raihan al-Biruni
Description: Sociological Observations
Type: Text
Description of India
Date: 1030
Author: Abu'l Raihan al-Biruni
Description: Sociological Observations
Type: Text
Ecclesiastical History
Date: c. 300
Author: Eusebius of Caesarea
Description: Historical Account
Type: Text
Ecclesiastical History
Date: c. 300
Author: Eusebius of Caesarea
Description: Historical Account
Type: Text
The Qur'an: Call for Jihad
Date: c. 650
Author: The Prophet Mohammad
Description: Religious Teaching
Type: Text
The Qur'an: Call for Jihad
Date: c. 650
Author: The Prophet Mohammad
Description: Religious Teaching
Type: Text
Frank-land: An Islamic View of the West
Date: 1275-1276
Author: Al-Qazwini
Description: Sociological Observations
Type: Text
Frank-land: An Islamic View of the West
Date: 1275-1276
Author: Al-Qazwini
Description: Sociological Observations
Type: Text
The Life of Charlemagne: The Emperor Himself
Date: c. 835
Author: Einhard
Description: Biography
Type: Text
The Life of Charlemagne: The Emperor Himself
Date: c. 835
Author: Einhard
Description: Biography
Type: Text
Diary
Date: 1000
Author: Murasaki Shikibu
Description: Diary/Sociological Observations
Type: Text
Diary
Date: 1000
Author: Murasaki Shikibu
Description: Diary/Sociological Observations
Type: Text
The Book Of Descriptions Of Countries
Date: 1340
Author: Francesco Pegolotti
Description: Merchant Handbook
Type: Text
The Book Of Descriptions Of Countries
Date: 1340
Author: Francesco Pegolotti
Description: Merchant Handbook
Type: Text
Fifteenth-Century Slave Trade: The Portuguese in West Africa
Date: 1455-1456
Author: Alvise da Cadamosto
Description: Account
Type: Text
Fifteenth-Century Slave Trade: The Portuguese in West Africa
Date: 1455-1456
Author: Alvise da Cadamosto
Description: Account
Type: Text
Columbus Announces His Discovery
Date: 1493
Author: Christopher Columbus
Description: Letter/Sociological Observations
Type: Text
Columbus Announces His Discovery
Date: 1493
Author: Christopher Columbus
Description: Letter/Sociological Observations
Type: Text
Cortés on the Aztecs: Two Letters to Charles V
Date: 1521
Author: Hernando Cortés
Description: Letters/Sociological Observations
Type: Text
Cortés on the Aztecs: Two Letters to Charles V
Date: 1521
Author: Hernando Cortés
Description: Letters/Sociological Observations
Type: Text
History and Description of Africa
Date: 1526
Author: Leo Africanus
Description: Sociological Observations
Type: Text
History and Description of Africa
Date: 1526
Author: Leo Africanus
Description: Sociological Observations
Type: Text
The Council of Trent and Catholic Reformation
Date: 1563
Author: Acts of the Council of Trent
Description: Church Decrees
Type: Text
The Council of Trent and Catholic Reformation
Date: 1563
Author: Acts of the Council of Trent
Description: Church Decrees
Type: Text
Galileo Discovers the Moons of Jupiter
Date: 1610
Author: Galileo Galilei
Description: Astromomical Study
Type: Text
Galileo Discovers the Moons of Jupiter
Date: 1610
Author: Galileo Galilei
Description: Astromomical Study
Type: Text
An Eyewitness Describes the Slave Trade in Guinea
Date: c. 1700
Author: Captain Willem Bosman
Description: First-hand Account
Type: Text
An Eyewitness Describes the Slave Trade in Guinea
Date: c. 1700
Author: Captain Willem Bosman
Description: First-hand Account
Type: Text
An African Slave Relates His First Impressions Upon Boarding a Slave Ship
Date: 1793
Author: Olaudah Equiano
Description: Memoir/First-hand Account
Type: Text
An African Slave Relates His First Impressions Upon Boarding a Slave Ship
Date: 1793
Author: Olaudah Equiano
Description: Memoir/First-hand Account
Type: Text
Declaration of Independence
Date: 1776
Author: Thomas Jefferson
Description: Political Declaration
Type: Text
Declaration of Independence
Date: 1776
Author: Thomas Jefferson
Description: Political Declaration
Type: Text
What Is the Third Estate?
Date: 1789
Author: Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
Description: Polemical Pamphlet
Type: Text
What Is the Third Estate?
Date: 1789
Author: Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
Description: Polemical Pamphlet
Type: Text
A Black Revolutionary Leader in Haiti: Toussaint L'Ouverture
Date: 1797
Author: François Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture
Description: Political Declaration
Type: Text
A Black Revolutionary Leader in Haiti: Toussaint L'Ouverture
Date: 1797
Author: François Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture
Description: Political Declaration
Type: Text
Czech Nationalism Finds a Literary Outlet
Date: 1855
Author: Bozena Nemcova
Description: Fiction
Type: Text
Czech Nationalism Finds a Literary Outlet
Date: 1855
Author: Bozena Nemcova
Description: Fiction
Type: Text
The Wealth of Nations
Date: 1776
Author: Adam Smith
Description: Economic Theory
Type: Text
The Wealth of Nations
Date: 1776
Author: Adam Smith
Description: Economic Theory
Type: Text
The 'Poet Laureate of Empire' Issues a Word of Warning
Date: 1897
Author: Rudyard Kipling
Description: Poem
Type: Text
The 'Poet Laureate of Empire' Issues a Word of Warning
Date: 1897
Author: Rudyard Kipling
Description: Poem
Type: Text
An Indian Nationalist Condemns the British Empire
Date: 1920
Author: Sarojini Naidu
Description: Speech
Type: Text
An Indian Nationalist Condemns the British Empire
Date: 1920
Author: Sarojini Naidu
Description: Speech
Type: Text
The Mexican View of the War
Date: 1850
Author: Ramon Alvarez et al.
Description: Historical Account
Type: Text
The Mexican View of the War
Date: 1850
Author: Ramon Alvarez et al.
Description: Historical Account
Type: Text
The Fourteen Points
Date: 1918
Author: Woodrow Wilson
Description: Diplomatic Guidelines
Type: Text
The Fourteen Points
Date: 1918
Author: Woodrow Wilson
Description: Diplomatic Guidelines
Type: Text
The Centerpiece of Nazi Racial Legislation: The Nuremberg Laws
Date: 1935
Author: Nazi German Government
Description: Law
Type: Text
The Centerpiece of Nazi Racial Legislation: The Nuremberg Laws
Date: 1935
Author: Nazi German Government
Description: Law
Type: Text
Third World Advocate Decries Colonized Peoples' Loss of Identity
Date: 1952
Author: Frantz Fanon
Description: Socio-political Commentary
Type: Text
Third World Advocate Decries Colonized Peoples' Loss of Identity
Date: 1952
Author: Frantz Fanon
Description: Socio-political Commentary
Type: Text
The Helsinki Final Act: Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms Enunciated
Date: 1975
Author: Helsinki Conference on European Security
Description: International Accord
Type: Text
The Helsinki Final Act: Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms Enunciated
Date: 1975
Author: Helsinki Conference on European Security
Description: International Accord
Type: Text
The Gulf War
Date: 1990
Author: George Bush
Description: Political Speech/Policy
Type: Text
The Gulf War
Date: 1990
Author: George Bush
Description: Political Speech/Policy
Type: Text


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