| The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, Second Edition
|The End of a Global Century, 1991-2000
in the 1990s
This map breaks down all the nations of the world according
to their political organization.
Agricultural Labor in the Twentieth Century
These maps demonstrate changes in the work force in all
the regions of the world.
Literacy in the Twentieth Century
These maps show both the increase in literacy and regional
of Telephones in the Twentieth Century
This multimedia presentation illustrates how this form
of telecommunication has grown and the areas where its use has been most
This map displays the locations of the major military
conflicts, primarily ethnic in origin, that occurred around the world during
the late twentieth century.
This interactive map shows the sources of tension in
the world today. Click on specific areas for more information.
This map illustrates the new political boundaries that
appeared as various ethnic groups declared their independence from Yugoslavia,
Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union. Some of the countries shown
in the Caucasus region have not yet received international recognition.
The Balkan Regional Atlas
This site presents a map of the various provinces of
the former Yugoslavia and a chart detailing their religious composition.
This site features many unique maps that depict the cyberspace
1900s Sound Clips
You can download various sound clips from twentieth-century
American history from politics to popular culture at this site. This
is a good way to explore the history of media during the twentieth century.
Cleansing in Sri Lanka
This site includes very graphic and intense images from
this atrocity in Sri Lanka.
News: The Battle for Free Trade
View images and watch video clips of the riots surrounding
the World Trade Organization's annual meeting in Seattle in December 1999.
History of Television
This site offers many images of popular television series
which have been broadcast in the United States since World War II.
from the Past: History of Television Technology
This essay provides many diagrams illustrating the technology
associated with television.
This is the companion web site to the popular global
television channel. At the bottom, there is a link to the corporation's
View the global operations of this company at this site.
Cola: Around the World
Explore the international operations of this epitome
of American popular culture.
History of Rock-n-Roll:
The Golden Decade, 1954-1963
Listen to this collection of classic rock 'n' roll hits,
both British and American, at this comprehensive site.
100: The Beatles
View a video clip of the Beatles' famous appearance on
the Ed Sullivan Show.
This site is a course syllabus that contains a few images
of postmodern architecture.
100: Pablo Picasso
The third page at this site has links to various museums
displaying Picasso's work.
During the last few decades of the twentieth century,
elements of a global culture emerged. For evidence of this phenomenon,
go to MTV.com and look for the link in the left hand column entitled "MTV Worldwide: International Sites." Click this link and explore the international operations of this American television phenomenon.". How does MTV's global presence
represent an aspect of the global culture? Who is its targeted audience?
Do most of MTV's various operations market the same programming or music,
or do they specifically tailor their offerings to local consumers?
Does the corporation utilize elements of both approaches? How has
MTV helped to promote similar music tastes around the world? Do you
get the impression that MTV primarily benefits American musical artists,
or does it promote a truly global commodity?
You can also observe a similar process by perusing the
web sites of Levis.com and Coca
Cola: Around the World. Do the global activities of these corporations
symbolize cultural convergence around the world? In other words,
does their worldwide prominence illustrate growing similarities in consumers'
tastes and desires? For more insight into this question, see Economic
Globalization and Culture: A Discussion with Dr. Francis Fukuyama
(be sure to continue to the next page). How does this analyst assess
the concept of cultural convergence? Do you believe that the new
information revolution will usher in an era of better relationships among
the different cultures of the world or that it will lead to more confrontation?
One analyst who is pessimistic about global confrontations
in the twenty-first century is Samuel Huntington. To learn his views,
go to Samuel
Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996)
Chapter 12, The West, Civilizations, and Civilization and then summarize
his predictions for the future. Next, compare and contrast his views
with those of Fukuyama's, which you explored in Activity One. Which
man is more optimistic, and which is more pessimistic? How does each
view the future of Western values, especially the notion of liberal democracy,
or popular sovereignty? Do they predict that these values will become
universal or will increasingly be challenged? Do they envision a
peaceful liberal international order in which nations work toward common
goals, or do they foresee a more fractured world order?
Fukuyama and Huntington wrote their books several years
ago. How have recent trends in global affairs confirmed or contradicted
their views? To answer this question, go to Contemporary
Conflicts and choose one conflict on each continent to investigate
further. Click on the link provided and then use the links that appear
to investigate the nature of each conflict. Are the issues religious,
ethnic, or nationalistic; that is, are people fighting to further
the interests of their nation, or are they fighting to liberate an ethnic
or religious minority?
First, visit the Official
Website of the Bharatiya Janata Party, the ruling party in India today.
Study the "Party History," "Party Philosophy," and "Election Manifesto;"
then you can access this information by clicking on these titles in the
right-hand frame. Then describe the goals of this political organization.
Why has it been successful at the ballot box during the past few years?
Next, analyze the information at Carnegie
Endowment for International Peace: NON-PROLIFERATION: Nuclear Arsenals
of the Non-NPT Nuclear Weapon States. Who are the main rivals
of these three nations with nuclear capabilities in international affairs?
Describe the nature of this antagonism; is it economic, religions, or ethnic?
Lastly, go to Islamic
Revolution: The Election of President Khatami and Iran's Young Voices for Change and review the material at these sites.
Next, analyze the significance of President Khatami's and his supporters'
victories in the presidential and parliamentary elections in Iran.
What are their goals, and are these goals focused on the religious or the
economic growth of the nation? Whom did Khatami and his supporters
appeal to in their victories, and why?
These sites should give you the information necessary
to evaluate the relevance of Fukuyama's and Huntington's work during the
first decade of the twentieth century. Which critic's scenario seems
more plausible? Be sure to evaluate the evidence that supports both
sides of the argument. In your final assessment, do you believe that
we are living in a fragmented or a homogenous world today?
For an extremely pessimistic view of the twenty-first
century, read Robert
Kaplan, The Coming Anarchy. Then list and briefly describe the multiple
problems that he claims plague the developing world, such as tribalism
and urbanization. How have globalization, imperialism, and the rise of
nationalism affected the developing world? What predictions does
Kaplan make about the future of the areas he has visited? What regions
does he single out as having brighter prospects than other places? Why
does he see more potential in these places than in others? Why does he
single out Africa as the most disturbing region that he examines?
Debate his claim that "we ignore this dying region at our own risk."
As the three previous activities have demonstrated, the
world at the dawn of the twentieth century is both more united and more
divided than ever. Although global corporations such as Coca Cola
promote similar consumer products worldwide, and international institutions
such as the United Nations and the World Trade Organization try to formulate
rules of engagement for nations and peoples, the emergence of universally
shared values has yet to occur. Read the United
Nation's Universal Declaration of Human Rights and then evaluate to
what extent women around the world have obtained these rights. For
information, go to Women
in Nigeria Today, Women
and Education, Domestic
Servants Overseas, Saudi
Women: Education and Work, and A
Woman's View: The Poverty of Women. Have Third World governments
responded to the needs of women? Why, or why not? Using the
situations of women around the world as a case study, explain why it is
so hard to develop a universal standard of human rights.