| The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, Second Edition
|Striving for Independence: Africa, India, and Latin America, 1900-1949
This map highlights the colonial presence in Africa.
of Colonial Africa
of India: Partition
Click on "Map" in the left-hand corner to view this map
of South Asia after the British retired from the area.
This contemporary map highlights political entities.
of Former ANC Leaders
This collection includes images of early leaders of this
South African organization.
This site includes a collection of postcards of French
West Africa from 1895 to 1930. The text is in French, but the images
are well worth the look. Click on "Bamako," "Tombouctou," and "Bandiagara"
to see them.
This is another French site that has images of posters,
newspapers, and advertisements depicting France's colonial empire in Africa.
Click on "Photos" in the left-hand frame to see photographs
taken during this European adventurer's time in Africa.
This site offers numerous images of Gandhi throughout
This site features more pictures of Gandhi, primarily
during his anticolonial activities.
Virtual Ashram: Multimedia
Watch film clips of Gandhi that use Quicktime software.
Gandhi Photo Gallery
This Indian government site presents numerous images
of Gandhi's life.
Ghandi in Cartoons
This site offers numerous editorial cartoons from British
and South American newspapers depicting Gandhi and his activities.
They provide a good source for analysis of Gandhi's impact on European
Along with a brief description, this site offers two
images of India's first prime minister.
This comprehensive site provides links to images from
the revolution, including portraits of leaders and scenes from battles.
Connect: Timeline Overview
Scroll down to the section on the Mexican Revolution.
The links provide portraits of leaders and other images from the revolutionary
period. Be sure to visit the "Nation in flux" and "Consolidation"
The Virtual Diego
Rivera Web Museum
The section entitled "Gallery" provides numerous examples
of this painter's work that highlight the changes that occurred in Mexico
during the first half of the twentieth century.
Community: Frida Kahlo
This site presents examples of the works of another influential
Mexican artist who painted during the first half of the twentieth century.
At first thought, analyzing the independence struggles
in Africa, India, and Latin America during the first half of the twentieth
century as a unit might not make much sense. Each area observed many
of its own traditions and had its own unique history. Africa and
India suffered through colonization, but Latin America had been independent
for a century. Nevertheless, as Chapter 32, Striving for Independence:
Africa, India, and Latin America, 1900-1949, in Bulliet, et al., The
Earth and Its Peoples (Second Edition) points out, they shared many
common characteristics during this time. In each region, broad-based
movements emerged that expressed a growing sense of nationalism and a desire
for greater social justice.
Read these writings or speeches by several of leaders
of these diverse movements and then answer the questions that follow.
For India, see
K. Gandhi: Indian Home Rule, 1909, and Jawaharlal Nehru: Marxism, Capitalism,
and India's Future. (Note: This is the first excerpt from this site.) For
Latin America, see Francisco
Madero: The Plan for San Louis Potosi, November 20, 1910 and Juan
Domingo Perón: Justicialism. For Africa, see KWAME
NKRUMAH: THE EARLY YEARS 1909 - 1947. How does each leader express
the increasing sense of nationalism and movement for social justice prevalent
in his region? Whom does each blame for the problems that he addresses?
Do these leaders agree on the solutions to their people's problems?
Why do you think that these leaders' ideas appealed to
so many people during this period? What early-twentieth-century circumstances
and events in other parts of the world might have influenced the development
of their radical ideas? Do you think that these men had been exposed
to Western ideas such as the ideology of the French and American Revolutions,
Marxism, and nationalism?
To explore the last question in Activity One further,
go to African
Christianity: A History of the Christian Church in Africa: Sub-Saharan
Christianity. Read the introduction to this site and the two
sections that follow it, "Phase I" and "Phase II." Be sure to visit
any hyperlink at the end of each section. Then describe the impact
of Western Christian missionary activity on the development of nationalism
and the yearning for greater social justice in Africa during the first
half of the twentieth century.
Aside from providing spiritual guidance, what other functions
did churches serve during this time? Did Africans who converted to
Christianity abandon their culture and traditions? How did the church
inadvertently cultivate a generation of leaders who would challenge European
colonialism? Did European missionaries themselves serve as leaders
for social justice? What do you consider the greatest legacy
of Western churches to the history of sub-Saharan Africa between 1900 and
National liberation movements in these regions also gained
inspiration and guidance from each other during this time period.
Two of twentieth-century world history's most influential and enduring
institutions--the Indian National Congress and the African National Congress--were
formed during this time period. Read brief histories of each organization
at The Indian National
Congress and Mzabalazo:
A History of the African National Congress Party and then compare
and contrast each organization's goals and strategies. What were
their goals? Who initially joined their movements? How did
each organization to the broader public? Were these groups influenced
or inspired by foreign ideas such as Marxism or the Soviet Union's accomplishments?
Now read the following documents from the African National
Congress Party's archives-- Tribute
to Dr. William E. Burghart DuBois, Mahatma
Gandhi: South Africa's Gift to India? and Nehru
and Africa --and answer the following questions. How did the liberation
movements in South Africa and India, as well as the African American movement
for social justice in the United States, influence one another during the
first half of the century? Why, despite their unique problems and
situations, did these efforts look to each other for inspiration and guidance?
What developments of the previous century enabled this dialogue to occur?
In other words, why was Gandhi in South Africa? Why were South Africans
able to gain access to the works of W. E. B. DuBois? Can the early
twentieth century be characterized as a period of global struggle against
the legacy of European imperialism that can be traced back to the sixteenth
century, or do you believe that despite their similarities, most national
liberation movements of the early twentieth century were essentially local
in their goals and outlooks? Explain your answer.
In web Activity Two for Chapter 30, The Crisis of the
Imperial Order, 1900-1929, you explored the impact that the devastation
of World War I and the challenges of modern science to Victorian ideas
about progress and reason had on Western art. The revolts against
imperialism that occurred during the first half of the twentieth century
also affected artistic expression.
One of the more famous artists of this period was the
Mexican nationalist Diego Rivera, who is introduced on page 820 of this
chapter. To learn more about Rivera, go to Diego
Rivera Web Museum and tour this exhibit by clicking on "Biography"
on the top banner. After familiarizing yourself with his life, view
the images at "Gallery" and "Murals." You can also read Rivera's
own writing at "Magazine." Analyze and describe how Rivera's art
reflected the growing sense of nationalism and desire for social justice
in Mexico. Also explain how Rivera was influenced by the developments
in Western art during the first half of the twentieth century. Then
choose one or two of his paintings that exemplify his political leanings
and explain your choices.