| The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, Second Edition
|The Collapse of the Old Order, 1929-1949
in the 1930s
This map shows the various forms of government, from
communism to democracy, that existed around the world during the Great
in 1939 on the eve of World War II
Second World War Alliance: A Global Perspective
We Forget: World War II
This comprehensive site includes many maps of the battlefronts
in Europe and in the Pacific.
A Hypertext history of the Second World War
This immense site has many links that include maps of
key battles depicted primarily from an American perspective.
Axis in World War II
This site offers a series of maps showing the advances
and retreats of the armies of Japan, Germany, and Italy before and during
War II Theater Maps
From the same series as those at the previous site, these
maps focus on Europe and the Pacific in more detail.
Occupied Territory in Europe during World War II
This is another map of German-occupied Europe.
This map details the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
Scroll down for a large map depicting this Allied invasion
of Western Europe.
of Nazi Concentration and Death Camps
of World War II in Europe
This map shows the border changes and population shifts
in Europe resulting from the defeat of Germany.
in the Second World War
This map is a unique depiction of the casualty rates
per country in Europe during World War II.
and Atrocities in the Second Quarter of the Twentieth Century
This site presents an interesting means of explaining
the death toll of World War II.
Age of Warlords
This map depicts the political devolution of power in
China during the 1920s.
This map of China illustrates the short life of the Guomindang
from the Great Depression to World War II
This comprehensive site offers hundreds of images of
the United States during this period.
Spartacus Internet Encyclopedia: USA 1840-1960, Roosevelt and the New Deal
View images and historical illustrations from this era
of U.S. history.
New Deal Network Gallery
This site offers more images of the United States during
the Great Depression.
Franklin D. Roosevelt Library and Digital Archives Audio Files
Listen to several speeches given by President Roosevelt
about the Great Depression and World War II.
Franklin D. Roosevelt Library and Digital Archives: On line Photos
This superb site offers images from both the 1930s and
World War II in the United States.
We Forget: World War II
This site provides numerous high-quality images from
both the European and the Pacific theaters of the war.
War II Sound and Image Archive
View several famous images and listen to radio broadcasts
covering the war or propagandizing it.
War II Photos
of the Twentieth Century
This chart depicts the death tolls from various conflicts
of the past century, with the numbers from World War II at the top.
of World War II
This site offers images from multiple perspectives.
from the Battle of Stalingrad
Scroll down to observe images of the deadliest battle
in Europe during World War II.
Revisit this bloody battle between American and Japanese
Archives: Pictures of World War II
View many famous images from an American perspective
of World War II and the events that led up to it.
Ships of the U.S. Navy
Explore naval technology during World War II from an
Virtual Museum: Evansville Shipyard
View images of this U.S. manufacturing center during
World War II.
Valour and the Horror: Canada at War
View several online exhibits depicting the Canadian experience
during World War II.
London Blitz of 1940
This site provides images from the German air campaign
against Great Britain.
Weapons in World War II
People at War
This National Archives of the United States exhibit offers
numerous images of the American people at war--both in battle and on the
Explore the wartime world of female factory workers at
a chemical warfare manufacturing facility in Huntsville, Alabama.
Pictures: Select Images Relating to American Women Workers During World
Relocation Authority Camps in Arizona, 1942-1946
This site provides numerous images of the Japanese internment
camps in the United States during World War II.
Reich Factbook Gallery
This site features images of Nazi Germany.
This site offers numerous images of Great Britain during
This National Archives of the United States site displays
American propaganda posters that were circulated during the war.
View images of World War II propaganda posters from Germany,
the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and Poland.
Propaganda from World War II
Soviet Propaganda Posters
Propaganda: Visual Material
This site offers numerous examples of Nazi propaganda
from Germany extolling the virtues of Adolf Hitler.
Arts: Leni Riefenstahl
Watch a clip from this director's famous Nazi propaganda
film Triumph of the Will.
Read about and view images from another Nazi propaganda
United States Holocaust
This site features numerous exhibits from this museum
depicting the Holocaust in 1930s and 1940s.
l'Vracha: A Guide to Understanding the Holocaust
This site offers several images that explore the Nazi
war against the Jews in Europe.
Pink Triangle Pages: About the Gay and Lesbian Experience during World
This site depicts other victims of Nazi persecution in
from the Nanjing Massacre
This site features panaromic views of Hiroshima after
the explosion of the atomic bomb.
This site is a photographic essay focusing on the second
city to suffer an atomic attack during World War II.
A major theme implicit in this chapter is the centralization
of government that occurred throughout the industrialized world during
the Great Depression and World War II. Nowhere was this development
more complete than in the Soviet Union under the leadership of Joseph Stalin.
To learn more about this process, go to Library
of Congress Soviet Archives Exhibit. Read the introduction; then
click on the arrow at the bottom of the page. On the next page, click
on the arrow below "Internal Workings of the Soviet System" and then read
and evaluate this essay by clicking the arrow keys at the bottom of each
page until you have finished. Be sure to click on each icon and to
study the primary source material.
Describe the political and economic system that Stalin
created during the late 1920s and the 1930s. How did the Soviet Union
manage to become the world's third largest industrial power on the eve
of World War II in Europe? What role did the Soviet government play
in this development? What were the consequences of industrialization
for the Soviet people; did their standard of living improve? How
was Stalin able to attain dictatorial powers in the Soviet Union during
this time? Many of Stalin's defenders have argued that his policies
during the interwar years were necessary for the Soviet Union because they
enabled the nation to withstand the German invasion during World War II.
Explain why you agree or disagree with this view.
The United States also experienced a huge expansion of
the role of government during the 1930s and 1940s. The extent and
duration of the Great Depression forced Western governments to respond
with new and innovative strategies; in the United States, the approach
taken was known as the "New Deal." For an overview, go to New
Deal and read this brief essay. Describe the New Deal and its strategy
for meeting the challenges of the Great Depression by answering the following
questions: What role did government play in the New Deal? Who were most
New Deal policies designed to help? What traditional attitudes toward government
and its role in people's lives did the New Deal challenge?
To analyze the New Deal's impact on America further, go
Progress Administration (WPA) Projects in Georgia (read the essay at
the beginning of this site and then view the images that interest you),
New Deal for the Arts (read the essays and study the images at
all of the hyperlinks here), and Social
Security History (read up to the section titled "Atlantic Charter").
These web sites examine two very popular New Deal programs--the Work Projects
Administration (which included federal employment of artists) and Social
Security. What were the goals of each program and whom were they
designed to help? Does the U.S. government still engage in efforts such
as these? Why do you think that the Depression led to the creation of such
programs, and why are they still popular today?
The New Deal signaled a clear break from traditional nineteenth-century
notions of economic thought and the role of government in the United States;
other democratic governments in the West adopted similar policies. During
the 1930s, many academics and philosophers encouraged governments to assume
broader responsibilities. No scholar had more influence during this period
than British economist John Maynard Keynes. To learn more about his impact,
go to The
Keynesian Revolution. Analyze the ways in which Keynes challenged traditional
assumptions about economic growth and the role of government in the economy.
Why, according to Keynes, did the Great Depression last so long?
What role did he believe government should play in restoring economic growth?
Overall, what role did he urge governments to adopt in the economy? What
older assumptions did he challenge? For example, how did he view balanced
budgets, government spending, and interest rates? How did the Stalin
Revolution in the Soviet Union and the rise of welfare states such as the
United States during the New Deal both represent a collapse of the old
One reason that governments were able to assume more
power during this period was their ability to mobilize resources and public
support for their programs. Which technological advancements of the
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries do you believe would have helped
these efforts? The revolution in communication technology and the
improved literacy rate in the advanced industrial nations enabled the proliferation
of massive propaganda campaigns to encourage certain behaviors and values.
All industrial nations, whether democratic or nondemocratic,
witnessed some sort of government-sponsored or government-encouraged propaganda
campaigns between 1929 and 1939. To learn about such efforts in the
Soviet Union, see Propaganda
and in the Propaganda State. Also study the images at SOVIET
PROPAGANDA: Posters & Cartoons of the 20th Century. Be sure
to click on "Next" at the bottom of the page. To understand Nazi
Germany's output, see Nazi
Propaganda Archives: Nazi Postcards, and German
Propaganda Archives: The Fuhrer Makes History, 1938. For Nazi
use of film, see Triumph
of the Will, Britannica.com:
Riefenstahl, Leni, and The
Eternal Jew. For a video clip from The Eternal Jew, go
Gallery and click on the image next to the movie's
title. For the United States see Powers
of Persuasion and Casablanca.
For Great Britain's efforts, go to Propaganda.
What were the purposes of these various propaganda campaigns?
What forms of media did they use to spread their messages? Who was
(or were) the intended audience(s), and whom did the propaganda target
as enemies? What specific goals of each regime did its propaganda
support? How were Hitler, Stalin, Churchill, and other leaders portrayed?
Describe how the messages in these propaganda campaigns
were conveyed. For example, did the Soviets and Nazis disseminate
complex ideological information, or did they communicate through simple
messages? Be sure to use examples from the web sites when you are
writing your essay. Why do you believe that these propaganda efforts
were successful at mobilizing the respective societies?
As Activity Three demonstrates, governments in the twentieth
century increasingly were able to mobilize their societies for both good
and evil purposes. They could better meet the basic material needs
of their citizens, but they were also capable of channeling their energy
to produce death and destruction. The first half of the century witnessed
the worst human rights abuses in world history. The massacre of Armenians
by the Turkish Army during World War I, Stalin's suppression of peasant
resistance to collectivization in the Soviet Union during the 1930s, and
the Nazi annihilation of many European Jews during World War II can all
be classified as genocide. Go to Genocide:
Definition and Controversies and see how the United Nations has defined
this term. Why is it difficult to agree upon a broad definition of
this kind of crime against humanity?
To explore these atrocities further, go to The
Armenian Genocide, COLLECTIVIZATION
AND INDUSTRIALIZATION, and Statements
by Hitler and Senior Nazis Concerning Jews and Judaism. What
did the Young Turks, the Soviet government, and the Nazis in Germany have
in common? What task were they trying to accomplish? Whom did
they single out as enemies, and why? How did nationalism and ideology
affect the attitudes of the Turks, Soviets, and Nazis?
Next, proceed to The
Armenian Genocide: Context and Legacy, Soviet
Economic Development (only read the sections through the 1930s), and
SOLUTION." What role did technology play in these atrocities?
Does this mean that genocide is only a twentieth-century phenomenon?
In other words, did the new technologies and the increased centralization
of government during the twentieth century usher in an age in which genocide
Today the world is familiar with the Holocaust but not
with the other systematic, state-led attempts to exterminate specific sectors
of the population in the Soviet Union and Turkey. Why do you think
this is the case? Finally, how do you think that increased knowledge
of these atrocities has affected views of world history at the end of the