| The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, Second Edition
|The Crisis of the Imperial Order, 1900-1929
This map details the German plans, developed before the
war began, for a quick victory over France.
on the Web: Map Room
This site offers a comprehensive collection of maps detailing
the battle lines of World War I, primarily as it was fought in Europe.
War I Map Pictures
This site contains numerous clickable maps that explore
the fighting within and outside Europe.
This article contains numerous clickable maps depicting
the history of the Western Front during World War I.
This companion site to the previous one traces the conflict
among Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary.
This site offers a detailed map of this infamous battle
on the Western Front.
and Atrocities in the First Quarter of the Twentieth Century
This unique map places the loss of life in World War
I in the context of other calamities that occurred at the beginning of
the twentieth century.
in the First World War
Derived from the same collection as the map at the previous
site, this map illustrates the loss of life per combatant in World War
Russian Civil War
This map shows the advances of the Whites in 1919.
of the First World War
This map shows the territorial changes in Europe and
the Middle East after World War I.
I: Trenches on the Web
This outstanding site offers numerous images of the war
ranging from photographs of weapons and combat to art work inspired by
the conflict. You must visit this collection.
Spartacus Internet Encyclopedia, British History 1700-1950: The First World
This comprehensive site offers, among many things, images
of political leaders, weapons, and the home front as well as many charts
detailing the carnage.
of the Great War
This site has a large image base depicting numerous aspects
of the war from naval technology to women's experiences.
at War II and France
at War III
These sites offer stereoscopic photographs of French
soldiers on the Western Front.
War Museum: On line Exhibits
This site has links to many exhibits that explore World
Museum of the Great War
This site provides numerous images of the war and its
impact on European society. It includes a section on architectural
developments during the first quarter of the twentieth century.
From a Belgian perspective, this site explores the Western
Front and the many individuals who fought there or supported the war effort
on the home front.
on the Somme
Experience this battle through the eyes of one soldier.
The Wilfred Owen
Multimedia Digital Archive
View film clips of the war at this superb site.
News: The Great War, 80 Years On
Under the section entitled "Voices of the Past," you
can listen to audio clips detailing veterans' recollections. You
can also watch the powerful film clip detailing the Western Front experience.
This site is a must-see.
This site presents images from this atrocity that occurred
in the Ottoman Empire during World War I.
War I Posters
View this site's examples of American propaganda aimed
at mobilizing support for the war effort.
of the Great War: French Posters, Prints, and Books
Observe French efforts at war propaganda at this site.
World War I
Songs: Early Recordings from a 1918 Victrola
Listen to songs that were popular in the United States
during the war.
Leaders Speak: Recordings from World War I and the 1920 Election
Listen to efforts to enlist the American public's support
for the war and hear the debate over whether the United States should join
the League of Nations.
When the boys came home
Numerous images accompany this site's account of Great
Britain during the 1920s.
War I and the Art World
Explore the advent of modern art and its connections
to the war at this site.
the First World War
This site focuses on artists' depictions of the war.
from the Russian Revolution
This site provides several photographs, mainly of leaders,
from the early period of the Russian Revolution.
Ports and Extraterritoriality in 1920s China
This site depicting China during the upheavals after
the Chinese Revolution offers many images, primarily of urban areas.
Film Clips of Rudolph Valentino
Watch clips from these early versions of mass-produced
motion pictures made in Hollywood during the 1920s.
Keaton: The Man who fell to the Earth
This site offers film clips of this famous comic star
of the 1920s.
of Gloria Swanson
This site presents still images of another star of the
Hollywood film industry that developed after World War I.
Time Radio: The Golden Years
At this unique site you can listen to numerous clips
from United States radio programs during the 1920s and 1930s.
Jazz Age: Flapper Culture and Style
Explore the life of the "new woman" after World War I
in the United States.
Life of Henry Ford
This site chronicles the rise of the automobile industry
in the United States.
This site presents early advertising which was geared
toward the "new consumerism" in the United States after World War I.
In web Activity Four for Chapter 29, The New Imperialism,
1869-1914, you explored an early example of Westerners, particularly those
in Britain and the United States, beginning to question the idea that Western
culture was superior to the cultures of the rest of the world. World
War I accelerated this process of reevaluating such beliefs. Never
before had humans witnessed death and destruction on such a broad scale.
Perhaps the best way to examine the psychological impact of World War I
is through visual imagery. To begin your exploration of the horrors
of the battlefield, go to Photos
of the Great War. You can study hundreds of images at this site,
but be sure to view the images under "Weapons and Equipment," "Death and
Destruction," and "Locations." You may not have time to look at all
of the pictures within these sections, but at least try to view a broad
Motion picture technology was also available during World
War I. To view film clips from the Battle of the Somme, go to Filming
the War. Read the text in the left-hand frame and, as you continue
through this site, download and view the film and audio clips provided.
Again, doing this may take a while, but the time is well worth spending.
To conclude your exploration of combat during the war, go to BBC
News: The Great War, 80 Years On. Under "Voices from the Past"
click on "Images" and "Newsreel" and then watch a montage of images from
the Western Front.
After reviewing these sites, explain why the war was so
devastating in terms of death and destruction. What technological
developments of the past century contributed to this situation? Describe
the psychological impact that combat must have had on many of the soldiers.
Also, consider what effect viewing these images must have had on people
in Western societies. How did these images of war challenge the values
and assumptions that had prevailed during the nineteenth century, particularly
the notions of progress, reason, and white superiority. Why did World
War I make many people in the West more willing to accept the revolutionary
theories of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, and Emile Durkheim?
(See Revolution in the Sciences on pages 774-775 of Bulliet, et al., The
Earth and Its Peoples [Second Edition].)
New work in the sciences increasingly challenged the
West's faith in reason and progress during the early part of the twentieth
century, in part because of the legacy of World War I. This same
skepticism about nineteenth-century values can be seen in the art of the
early twentieth century. Go to Web
Museum: Expressionism, Web
Museum: Picasso and Cubism, Web
Museum: Toward Abstraction, and History
of Surrealism. (Be sure to read the text carefully and to study
the images provided. Click on at least one artist's name among those that
are hyperlinked at each of these sites.) Explain how artistic expression
was changing during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Against what earlier styles and traditions were artists rebelling?
What new styles and traditions were emerging?
You can also observe similar trends in the world of music.
Go to Classical Midi
Archives: Stravinsky; listen to the passages from The Rite
of Spring and analyze the ways in which this work reflects the new
expressiveness of the art world at this time. World War I accelerated
these trends; you can learn more about this development by reading the
text and studying the images at World
War I and the Art World. (Be sure to place the cursor over the
topics on the left-hand side of the screen and to click all the links.)
Describe the war's impact on artistic expression. Did it lead to
radical departures or did it encourage contemporary trends within the art
Next, go to The
Metropolitan Museum Special Exhibitions: Painters in Paris, 1895-1950.
At the bottom of the page, click on "Learn more about this exhibition"
and then read the text. Be sure to visit the hyperlinks at the bottom
of this page. Then return to The
Metropolitan Museum Special Exhibitions: Painters in Paris, 1895-1950
and click on "View images from this exhibition." Analyze these images
by identifying the paintings that you feel exemplify the various schools
of modern art that were emerging during the early twentieth century--expressionism,
cubism, abstraction, and surrealism. Try to find one painting that
fits in each category and explain your choices. Finally, analyze
the ways in which these new forms of art challenged the nineteenth-century
values of progress and reason.
Although World War I helped to usher in an age of skepticism
in the West, the postwar period was also a period of excitement and innovation.
New technology might have made the carnage of the war possible, but it
also helped to transform the lives and raise the living standards of ordinary
people. For an example, go to Model
T Road Trip; click on "Begin the Journey" and continue on this virtual
excursion until it ends. Be sure to visit all hyperlinks--either
the text that appears in red or the images--and then answer the following
questions. How did the mass production of automobiles in the United
States alter the lifestyle of the family depicted? What conveniences
did this technology provide? What innovations in marketing and finance
enabled more people to purchase automobiles? How did the advent of
the automobile age change the outlooks of different members of this family?
For another example, go to movie.site
and read the sections entitled "The Birth of Film," "The Silent Era," and
"The Beginning of the Studio System." Explain the evolution of motion
pictures during this time period. What kinds of motion pictures appealed
to broad audiences? How did the industry that produced motion pictures
evolve? Did movie producers regard their craft as artistic expression
or the creation of entertainment? Why, according to Bulliet,
et al, The Earth and Its Peoples (Second Edition), page 776, did
Hollywood studios become the main producers of motion pictures in the world?
To view samples of or images from American motion pictures
made during the 1920s, go to Selected
Film Clips of Rudolph Valentino, Buster
Keaton: The Man Who Fell to Earth, and The
Photos of Gloria Swanson. Read the texts, study the images, and
watch the film clips while you are visiting these sites. All three
of these movie stars were incredibly powerful box-office draws during the
1920s. Describe the kinds of films that they made. Were they
realistic or fantasies? Why do you suppose that these genres had
such broad appeal? How did watching these films allow people to escape
from their problems?
Radio also emerged as a form of mass entertainment after
World War I. To access a history of radio, go to Old
Time Radio: The Golden Years and read the text in this detailed time
line. Clicking on the hyperlinks will enable you to listen to songs,
speeches, and excerpts of radio programing from 1918 to 1939. Be
sure to visit all of the links to Donna Halper's site and to listen to
the excerpts there. To what extent did the growth of the radio industry
parallel that of the motion picture industry? Consider how the industry
that produced radio programs evolved during this time? Why did people
tune in to listen to the radio? Did it provide a release from everyday
problems as movies did? What other purposes did radio serve besides
providing entertainment? Would you argue that access to radio and
motion pictures lessened or exacerbated the class differences that existed
in the West before World War I?
World War I and the new technologies of the early twentieth
century also had a lasting impact on the world outside the West.
World War I resulted in the creation of the Soviet Union in the 1920s.
This nation represented a new form of political and economic organization
since one party controlled the economy. It also represented a national
liberation movement since the Communist Party worked to modernize the nation's
economy quickly in order to stand up to the Western industrial powers.
The Communists' economic strategies also attempted to limit foreign control
of their economy. Although this experiment resulted in mass atrocities
(see The Stalin Revolution in Chapter 31, The Collapse of the Old Order,
1929-1949), it also inspired other leaders and movements around the world.
Sun Yat-sen (1867-1925), the father of modern Chinese
nationalism, was one of those leaders influenced by the Communist Revolution.
For a brief biography of Sun, see CNN.com
Asia Now: Sun Yat-sen; you can read more about him at Modern
China: Sun Yat-sen. After reading about Sun, analyze the influence
that Western ideas had on Sun's vision for China's future. Describe Sun's
use of Chinese history to inspire his followers and explain the impact
of the Bolshevik Revolution on his strategies for national liberation in
China, paying particular attention to his ideas on the organization of
the state. Unfortunately, Sun Yat-sen failed to see his dream of
a united and strongly independent China realized before his death.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, a contemporary of Sun, did
manage to oversee the transformation of a modern nation-state. To learn
more about him, see Mustafa
Kemal Ataturk: Ataturk's Life. You can also read portions of a speech
he gave at the national convention of the People's Party of the Republic,
which was held in Ankara between October 15 and 20, 1927, at The
Speech: Part I and The
Speech: Part IV. Discuss the influence of Western ideas on Atatürk's
vision for Turkey's future. Describe his use of Turkish history to inspire
his followers and examine the impact of the Bolshevik Revolution on Atatürk's
strategies for Turkish national liberation, paying particular attention
to his ideas on the organization of the state.
When you have finished reviewing these sites, compare
and contrast Sun Yat-sen and Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. What is similar
about their ideologies of national liberation, and what is different?
Did they confront similar problems as they pursued their goals of national
liberation? What successes and failures did they experience in their efforts
to create modern nation-states in China and Turkey? How did the Communist
Revolution in Russia inspire each man? In what ways did each man's
actions threaten the world order after World War I?