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The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, Second Edition
Richard W. Bulliet, Pamela Kyle Crossley, Daniel R. Headrick, Steven W. Hirsch, Lyman L. Johnson, David Northrup
History WIRED

The New Power Balance, 1850-1900


Map of Europe, 1900

The German Empire, late nineteenth century

The 25 Largest Cities in the World, 1900

The United States, 1900 Map of London Waterworks, 1856
This interactive map demonstrates the complexity of the utility system created to provide water to the residents of London.

Map of John Snow's London, 1859
This interactive map allows you to explore this huge metropolis.

Charles Booth's Descriptive Map of London Poverty
This interactive map enables you to explore the income segregation of Victorian London.


Brooklyn College History Department Image Bank
The sections "Industry and Society" and "Liberalism and Nationalism" provide numerous images of topics covered in this chapter.

Modern History Sourcebook: Tables Illustrating the Spread of Industrialization

Making Steel and Killing Men
This site presents photographs of steel factories in early-twentieth-century America.

Around the World in the 1890's: Photographs from the World Transportation Commission 1894-1896
This unique and comprehensive site allows you to explore the transportation revolution that occurred during the nineteenth century by viewing these photographs.

Grandmother of Europe: Queen Victoria, her children, and grandchildren
This site presents images of Queen Victoria and many of Europe's heads of state during the late nineteenth century.
This comprehensive site offers numerous images of Victorian fashion, home decor, recreation, and so on.

Victoria Web
This comprehensive site provides numerous images from the nineteenth century, most of which are from Great Britain.

Explore a Store - A typical Sainsbury's of the 1900s
This unique site allows you to see a typical London grocery store at the turn of the century.

Stereoviews of the Nineteenth Century
Explore examples of this type of late-nineteenth-century photograph that middle-class families across the industrial world would view for entertainment.

Images of Old New York
This site provides several photographs of turn-of-the-century New York.

The Spartacus Internet Encyclopedia: British History 1700-1900, The Emancipation of Women
Within this site, you will find numerous images of women activists and their protests. Votes for Women: Selections from the National American Woman Suffrage Association,1848-1921

Temperance and Prohibition
This site's analysis of the Prohibition movement in the United States includes many images and illustrations.

Wage Earning Pittsburgh
Explore this site's images of working-class labor and living conditions in this American city at the turn of the century.

The Spartacus Internet Encyclopedia: USA 1840-1960, European Emigration 1820-1920
This comprehensive collection provides numerous images and charts exploring immigration to the United States from Europe.

How the Other Half Lives
This hypertext of Jacob Riis's famous account of the turn-of-the-century slums of New York includes numerous images and illustrations.

Modern History Sourcebook: The Internationale
Listen to the socialist anthem of the late nineteenth century.

Taisei Corporation
This site's first five links provide text and images of this Japanese corporation's history during the Meiji Restoration.

Films of the Russo-Japanese War
View several film clips from this early-twentieth-century conflict in East Asia.

Russo-Japanese War Research Society Picture Gallery People of Ideas During the nineteenth century
This site provides portraits of many of this century's influential philosophers and literary figures. People of Action during the nineteenth century
See portraits of prominent political and military figures at this site.

Activity One:

One major theme of this chapter is the worldwide economic integration that occurred during the second half of the nineteenth century.
This increased economic activity among all the regions of the world was due to the continuing advancements in transportation and communication that had begun during the early years of the Industrial Revolution.
To illustrate this development, go to Around the World in the 1890s: Photographs from the World Transportation Commission 1894-1896.

Click on "Search by Key Words," and then type in terms that are associated with these technological changes, such as steam ships, telegraphs, railroads, or ports.
Be inclusive here; for example, you can type in insurance companyor banks. Next, analyze the images you find. How do they represent the new wave of technological advancements of the second half of the nineteenth century? For example, consider what source was powering the ships, and what materials were being used to construct the ships or railroads. Also notice where these pictures were taken.Why was there so much expansion of railroad, shipping, telegraph, and banking networks outside of Europe and North American during this time? These forms of transportation provided the framework for greater economic integration. Nothing symbolized this change more than the emergence of the international gold standard. To explore the causes and consequences of this development, go to SlouchingTowards Utopia?: The Economic History of the Twentieth Century Chapter VIII. The Pre-World War I Gold Standard.

How did the gold standard allow for the greater flowing of capital, goods, and people? Why were so many national governments willing to commit their currency to the gold standard? Why were the British crucial to the operation of this monetary arrangement? Which countries did the gold standard benefit more--industrialized or nonindustrialized nations? Which classes of people benefited more from it? What impact did business cycles have on the global economy as a result of the gold standard?

Activity Two:

Global economic integration was more favorable for industrial societies than for those based on agriculture or primary products.
However, within the industrial world, this economic growth did not affect everyone equally. Aside from the rich, the greatest beneficiaries of this expansion of wealth were the middle class, whose numbers and living standards increased rapidly during the second half of the nineteenth century.
To explore the world of the middle class, read the essays and study the images at The Development of Leisure in Britain after 1850, Technology and Leisure in Britain after 1850, and Nineteenth Century Costumes.
Then, go to Victorian Station: Lifestyles, and click on the hyperlinks under "Fashion," "Etiquette," "Leisure Activities," "Recipes," and "Rituals." Next, go to Victorian Station: Interior Designs, and click on the hyperlinks under "Interior Design," "Room by Room," and "Furniture."

In what ways did members of the middle class in industrialized nations benefit from the growth of the world economy? When responding to this question, consider their consumption of products and their occupations. Do these essays suggest that a common outlook existed among the middle classes of the industrial world? Did their members share similar tastes in fashion and leisure activities and observe the same manners?
What made these common perspectives possible? What roles did photography, transportation, and other innovations such as mass-produced magazines and newspapers play in this development during the second half of the nineteenth century?

Activity Three:

As you completed Activity Two, you probably observed that middle-class status involved different sets of expectations, aspirations, and values for men and for women. Bulliet, et al., The Earth and Its Peoples (Second Edition) suggests that middle-class men and women increasingly led separate lives during this era (see The Victorian Ageand Women's "Separate Sphere" on pages 711-713). Review the hyperlinks in Activity Two, especially those in The Development of Leisure in Britain after 1850 and Victorian Station: Lifestyles. Using specific examples, analyze how "separate" the lives of men and women of the urban middle class actually were. What roles did each play within their families?
To what values and goals did each aspire? How much time do you think these men and women spent interacting with each other?

Activity Four:

Go back and find the quotation of John Maynard Keynes calling the late nineteenth century "a golden age" in the essay Slouching Towards Utopia?: The Economic History of the Twentieth Century Chapter VIII. The Pre-World War I Gold Standard from Activity One. For which peoples of the world was this period a golden age? Do you agree with Keynes's assessment? For an alternative view, explore the Haymarket Affair in the United States at The Dramas of Haymarket. Click on "Prologue" and then click "Continue" at the end of each section until you have finished. You can also explore more images of the affair by clicking on the images on the left-hand side of the site. Next, place the Haymarket Affair in the context of the global developments of the second half of the nineteenth century. Consider issues such as industrialization, urbanization, improved transportation, immigration, and increasing nationalism. What does this incident teach us about the plight of the other growing demographic group in the industrial societies during this time--the working class?

How were members of the working class affected by global economic integration and the rapid pace of industrialization? What solutions did they seek to better their conditions? Why did their efforts to improve their economic situation frighten the middle classes?
How did governments respond to conflict between social classes? How did the new power balance in the world affect social stability in the United States? One response of the U. S. government to the divisions exposed by the Haymarket Affair was to promote national unity through overseas expansion. This phenomenon will be explored in Chapter 29, The New Imperialism, 1869-1914.