| The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, Second Edition
|Nation Building and Economic Transformation in the
Immigration Patterns, 1858
This historical map from the Library of Congress shows
migration patterns around the world in the middle of the nineteenth century.
America in the late eighteenth century
This map shows the colonial status of much of the Americas
just prior to the Latin American independence movements.
Except for its representation of Columbia, this map shows
the borders that emerged in South America after a century of dispute.
This map shows the federation Simón Bolívar
helped to create after independence and the eventual countries that emerged
after its failure.
Expansion of the United States, 1783-1853
This map's interactive features demonstrate the growth
of United States territory before the Civil War.
War with Mexico
This is another interactive map that traces the border
disputes that occurred between the United States and Mexico from 1823 to
of the Mexican War
See the invasion routes used by the United States Army
to defeat Mexico.
This interactive map demonstrates the territorial consequences
of the war between Mexico and the United States.
Crops in the American South
This map identifies the places where staple crops dependent
on slave labor were grown in the United States before the Civil War.
in the American South
This map's interactive features allow you to see the
growth of slavery in the South between 1790 and 1860.
United States Civil War
This map shows the North and the South and major campaign
of Railroads and Maps
Several historical maps examining the spread of railroads
across the Western United States are offered here.
Atlas of Canada Online Learning Project
This interactive map demonstrates the emergence of Canada
and its growth through 1900.
This brief site offers a few images of this leader of
Latin American independence.
You can observe numerous images depicting the African
American experience in the United States at this site. Sections one
through six are particularly pertinent to this chapter.
African American Mosaic: Abolition
This site offers numerous images of prominent abolitionists,
their newspapers, and other material published in the antebellum United
of the Cherokee: Images
These images explore the world of the Cherokee nation
and its efforts to resist encroachment on their land in the Southeastern
United States during the early nineteenth century.
Civil War Photographs
The Library of Congress has placed numerous images from
its vast collection at this site. This Civil War was the first war
in history to be extensively photographed.
Civil War as photographed by Matthew Brady
This National Archives exhibit offers ten photographs
taken by this celebrated photographer as well as historical background.
Reports on Black America, 1857-1874
Explore this period of transition in race relations in
the United States through this digitized collection of the illustrations
published by this influential magazine during this period.
Peopling of Canada
This is another outstanding site from the University
of Calgary that offers numerous images of the immigrant experience and
western expansion in Canada during the nineteenth century.
These images explore the expansion of settlers into Western
North America during the nineteenth century. Included are images
of railroads, Amerindians, buffalo, and early settlements.
East Side Tenement Museum
Analyze the urban experience in late nineteenth century
North America through the images at this site. Tenements were usually
the first dwellings of recent arrivals to cities whether they had come
from the countryside, abroad, or both.
This essay, which includes numerous images, depicts several
ways that farmers harvested grain and the impact that the McCormick reaper
had on these methods.
By the 1820s, most of the colonies in the Americas had
followed the United States's example and had declared and achieved their
independence. For many, the process has been a bloody struggle.
All of these new nations tried to establish republican governments dedicated
to the ideals promoted by the American and French Revolutions (see Chapter
23, Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, 1750-1850). As had
been the case in the United States and France, this goal challenged traditional
assumptions about the status of women and Amerindians and about the enslavement
of African Americans. The obstacles and opportunities presented by
the Industrial Revolution that were discussed in Chapter 24, The Early
Industrial Revolution, 1760-1851, also strained these republican ideas.
Nation building, thus, provided many challenges.
To begin your analysis of these tensions, first go to
Harper's Weekly: Reports on
Black America, 1857-1874. This site explores the controversy
surrounding the emancipation of slaves in the United States. Click
on the "Introduction," "Slavery," "Civil War," "Reconstruction," and "Culture
and Society." At each site you will find either editorials from this
journal or editorial cartoons. After reviewing this site, you will
be better aware of how the nation had been divided over the issues of slavery,
emancipation, and equal rights for African Americans throughout these decades.
Note that these divisions did not occur solely on a North-South axis.
What fears did abolition provoke among millions of Americans in the United
States? How did Americans, both Southerners and Northerners, respond
to abolitionism? Why did the question of African American citizenship
cause such differences of opinion after the Civil War? Why did efforts
to grant full equality, at least to African American men, fail after the
Next, compare emancipation in the United States with that
in Latin American countries by reading the essay History
of Latin America: Social Change. Why do you think Latin American
nations were able to abolish slavery without engaging in bloody wars?
Why did some nations end the institution early on while others maintained
it until the end of the century? Did freed African Americans face
the same kinds of problems in Latin America that they did in the United
States? Analyze the ways in which all the new nations of the Americas
dealt with the contradictions between their republican ideas and the legacy
Another common source of conflict in these new nations
was the status of Amerindians. How were indigenous people to be accommodated
according to the republican spirit of the age? To learn how the United
States dealt with the issue, go to The
Trail of Tears and Seminole
Tribe of Florida: Resistance. Define the nature of the conflict
between the Amerindians and European Americans. Consider how they
viewed the territory being contested, how they organized themselves socially
and economically, and what technology they possessed. Also, identify
key turning points in relations between Native Americans and European settlers
such as wars and treaties. To examine this issue's impact in Canada,
and Southern Alberta: The Bison Economy of the Southern Alberta Plains.
Continue to explore this site by clicking on "The First Contact with Europeans,"
at the bottom of the page. View all the hyperlinks at this site,
including the last, "Disastrous Conflicts." For information about
both the United States and Canada, see Sitting
Bull and the Mounties. Next, refer back to this activity's questions
about the nature of conflict between Amerindians and European settlers
in the United States and relate them to the similar conflict in Canada.
To learn about this conflict's impact in Latin America,
go to History
of Latin America: The new order, 1850-1910 and read through the
section on "Oligarchies in Power." Then answer the same questions
that you responded to when discussing the situations in the United States
and Canada. What common factors characterized the conflicts between
Amerindians and European Americans in the United States, Canada, and Latin
America during the nineteenth century? What impact did industrialization
have on these clashes? (Remember to consider the global nature of
industrialization.) Why did Europeans want the land occupied by indigenous
peoples? Where did most of these conflicts take place? What
value did land acquired from indigenous peoples have for the industrialized
regions of the world? What technological advantages aided European
Americans in their conquest of indigenous people's territory?
The status of women was another issue that caused much
tension in these new nations throughout the century. As web activity
two for Chapter 23, Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, demonstrates,
some middle-class women began to demand equality before the law as a result
of the American and French Revolutions. Although no governments in
the Americas made good on this promise during the nineteenth century, more
and more women began to demand these basic human rights. Nowhere
was this movement more evident than in the United States. To learn
more about it, go to Women's
Rights National Historic Park and click on "The Convention,"
"The Participants," and "Related Events." Also, carefully read the
Declaration of Sentiments
adopted by the participants at the Women's Rights Convention. What
were the connections between the early women's rights movement in the United
States and the movement to abolish slavery? How does the
of Sentiments reflect the rhetoric and ideas espoused by Thomas Jefferson,
Thomas Paine, and other men who had been involved in the American and French
Revolutions a generation earlier? Compare and contrast the Declaration
of Sentiments with a work by Argentinean feminist Maria Eugenia Echenique,
Emancipation of Women (1876). Does she express attitudes similar
to those of her American counterparts? Does she use the language
of the American and French Revolutions? Why do you think these
women's calls for their inclusion in the political life of these new nations
were not heeded until the early twentieth centuries?
As the first three web activities demonstrate, American
societies during the nineteenth century were strongly divided over the
issues of race, ethnicity, and gender. In many instances, the ways
in which they dealt with these issues still define these nations today.
Many of these tensions were exacerbated by the Industrial Revolution.
Industrialization, particularly the advances in transportation, allowed
for massive immigration into the new nations of the Americas.
To explore this topic further, go to Peopling
North America: Population Movements & Migration. Click on
"Section 5: Asian and African Labour: Indenture and Beyond" and then read
the text and study the images at this site. (Click on "Section 5.1"
on the left-hand side of your screen after reading the introduction.
Then follow the arrows at the end of each section until you complete the
tutorial.) Also study the map at Library
of Congress, Map of Migration Patterns, 1858.
Discuss how industrialization in the nineteenth century
changed the ethnic composition of American societies and the ways in which
these societies coped with the changes. Consider the following questions
as you craft your response: What was indentured servitude?
When and where did this form of labor develop? What changes in the
global economy, in addition to the abolishment of the Atlantic slave trade,
made the growth of this institution possible? Where did indentured
servants originate? What areas in the Americas used this form of
labor? What efforts did the American societies make to include or
exclude these new social groups, and how did these groups respond to such
opportunities and challenges? How did the development of indentured
servitude shape the history of the Americas in the twentieth century?
Indentured servants were not the only immigrants who were
arriving in the Americas at this time. Millions of European free
laborers also crossed the Atlantic during the late nineteenth and early
twentieth centuries. A large number of Asian free laborers also made
their way to the Americas. To learn more about these migrations,
of Congress, Map of Migration Patterns, 1858. In addition, you
can find many statistics and primary materials on the web about this phenomenon
in the United States and Canada. For example, study the graph and
chart at Bar
Chart: U.S. Immigration, 1820-1970 and the material at Region
and Country or Area of Birth of the Foreign-Born Population, With Geographic
Detail Shown in Decennial Census Publications of 1930 or Earlier: 1850
to 1930 and 1960 to 1990. (Study the second chart only.)
Now read the articles and study the images at The
Immigrant Journey and Harper's
Weekly: The Chinese American Experience. Explain why and how
the immigration patterns of free laborers to the United States shifted
around the turn of the century and what conflicts arose in the nation as
a result. Begin by tracking both the increase in immigration during
this period and the sources of this immigration. Use the first two
sites mentioned to find this information. The second site provides
clues that illuminate the reasons why this increase and shift in immigration
To compare the Canadian and the American experiences,
go to The
Peopling of Canada: 1891-1921 and complete the tutorial. Then
analyze why and how the immigration patterns of free laborers to Canada
changed around the turn of the century and what conflicts arose in that
country as a result. List the similarities and differences between
the United States and Canadian immigrant experiences. Possible topics
might include the sources of immigration, the reactions of the native-born,
and settlement patterns. Was the Canadian immigration experience
around the turn of the century very similar, slightly similar with some
significant differences, or not at all similar to the American experience?
Defend your answer.