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The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, Second Edition
Richard W. Bulliet, Pamela Kyle Crossley, Daniel R. Headrick, Steven W. Hirsch, Lyman L. Johnson, David Northrup
History WIRED

Nation Building and Economic Transformation in the Americas, 1800-1890


Global Immigration Patterns, 1858
This historical map from the Library of Congress shows migration patterns around the world in the middle of the nineteenth century.

Latin America in the late eighteenth century
This map shows the colonial status of much of the Americas just prior to the Latin American independence movements.

South America, 1892
Except for its representation of Columbia, this map shows the borders that emerged in South America after a century of dispute.

Gran Columbia
This map shows the federation Simón Bolívar helped to create after independence and the eventual countries that emerged after its failure.

Territorial Expansion of the United States, 1783-1853
This map's interactive features demonstrate the growth of United States territory before the Civil War.

The War with Mexico
This is another interactive map that traces the border disputes that occurred between the United States and Mexico from 1823 to 1848.

Map of the Mexican War
See the invasion routes used by the United States Army to defeat Mexico.

Mexican Cession
This interactive map demonstrates the territorial consequences of the war between Mexico and the United States.

Slave Crops in the American South
This map identifies the places where staple crops dependent on slave labor were grown in the United States before the Civil War.

Slavery in the American South
This map's interactive features allow you to see the growth of slavery in the South between 1790 and 1860.

The United States Civil War
This map shows the North and the South and major campaign routes.

History of Railroads and Maps
Several historical maps examining the spread of railroads across the Western United States are offered here.

Historical Atlas of Canada Online Learning Project
This interactive map demonstrates the emergence of Canada and its growth through 1900.


San Martin's Homepage
This brief site offers a few images of this leader of Latin American independence.

African American Odyssey
You can observe numerous images depicting the African American experience in the United States at this site. Sections one through six are particularly pertinent to this chapter.

The African American Mosaic: Abolition
This site offers numerous images of prominent abolitionists, their newspapers, and other material published in the antebellum United States.

History of the Cherokee: Images
These images explore the world of the Cherokee nation and its efforts to resist encroachment on their land in the Southeastern United States during the early nineteenth century.

Selected Civil War Photographs
The Library of Congress has placed numerous images from its vast collection at this site. This Civil War was the first war in history to be extensively photographed.

The Civil War as photographed by Matthew Brady
This National Archives exhibit offers ten photographs taken by this celebrated photographer as well as historical background.

Harper's Weekly: Reports on Black America, 1857-1874
Explore this period of transition in race relations in the United States through this digitized collection of the illustrations published by this influential magazine during this period.

The Peopling of Canada
This is another outstanding site from the University of Calgary that offers numerous images of the immigrant experience and western expansion in Canada during the nineteenth century.

Western Photographic Resources
These images explore the expansion of settlers into Western North America during the nineteenth century. Included are images of railroads, Amerindians, buffalo, and early settlements.

Lower East Side Tenement Museum
Analyze the urban experience in late nineteenth century North America through the images at this site. Tenements were usually the first dwellings of recent arrivals to cities whether they had come from the countryside, abroad, or both.

Grain Harvesting
This essay, which includes numerous images, depicts several ways that farmers harvested grain and the impact that the McCormick reaper had on these methods.

Activity One:

By the 1820s, most of the colonies in the Americas had followed the United States's example and had declared and achieved their independence. For many, the process has been a bloody struggle. All of these new nations tried to establish republican governments dedicated to the ideals promoted by the American and French Revolutions (see Chapter 23, Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, 1750-1850). As had been the case in the United States and France, this goal challenged traditional assumptions about the status of women and Amerindians and about the enslavement of African Americans. The obstacles and opportunities presented by the Industrial Revolution that were discussed in Chapter 24, The Early Industrial Revolution, 1760-1851, also strained these republican ideas. Nation building, thus, provided many challenges.

To begin your analysis of these tensions, first go to Harper's Weekly: Reports on Black America, 1857-1874. This site explores the controversy surrounding the emancipation of slaves in the United States. Click on the "Introduction," "Slavery," "Civil War," "Reconstruction," and "Culture and Society." At each site you will find either editorials from this journal or editorial cartoons. After reviewing this site, you will be better aware of how the nation had been divided over the issues of slavery, emancipation, and equal rights for African Americans throughout these decades. Note that these divisions did not occur solely on a North-South axis. What fears did abolition provoke among millions of Americans in the United States? How did Americans, both Southerners and Northerners, respond to abolitionism? Why did the question of African American citizenship cause such differences of opinion after the Civil War? Why did efforts to grant full equality, at least to African American men, fail after the Civil War?

Next, compare emancipation in the United States with that in Latin American countries by reading the essay History of Latin America: Social Change. Why do you think Latin American nations were able to abolish slavery without engaging in bloody wars? Why did some nations end the institution early on while others maintained it until the end of the century? Did freed African Americans face the same kinds of problems in Latin America that they did in the United States? Analyze the ways in which all the new nations of the Americas dealt with the contradictions between their republican ideas and the legacy of slavery.

Activity Two:

Another common source of conflict in these new nations was the status of Amerindians. How were indigenous people to be accommodated according to the republican spirit of the age? To learn how the United States dealt with the issue, go to The Trail of Tears and Seminole Tribe of Florida: Resistance. Define the nature of the conflict between the Amerindians and European Americans. Consider how they viewed the territory being contested, how they organized themselves socially and economically, and what technology they possessed. Also, identify key turning points in relations between Native Americans and European settlers such as wars and treaties. To examine this issue's impact in Canada, see Calgary and Southern Alberta: The Bison Economy of the Southern Alberta Plains. Continue to explore this site by clicking on "The First Contact with Europeans," at the bottom of the page. View all the hyperlinks at this site, including the last, "Disastrous Conflicts." For information about both the United States and Canada, see Sitting Bull and the Mounties. Next, refer back to this activity's questions about the nature of conflict between Amerindians and European settlers in the United States and relate them to the similar conflict in Canada.

To learn about this conflict's impact in Latin America, go to History of Latin America: The new order, 1850-1910 and read through the section on "Oligarchies in Power." Then answer the same questions that you responded to when discussing the situations in the United States and Canada. What common factors characterized the conflicts between Amerindians and European Americans in the United States, Canada, and Latin America during the nineteenth century? What impact did industrialization have on these clashes? (Remember to consider the global nature of industrialization.) Why did Europeans want the land occupied by indigenous peoples? Where did most of these conflicts take place? What value did land acquired from indigenous peoples have for the industrialized regions of the world? What technological advantages aided European Americans in their conquest of indigenous people's territory?

Activity Three:

The status of women was another issue that caused much tension in these new nations throughout the century. As web activity two for Chapter 23, Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, demonstrates, some middle-class women began to demand equality before the law as a result of the American and French Revolutions. Although no governments in the Americas made good on this promise during the nineteenth century, more and more women began to demand these basic human rights. Nowhere was this movement more evident than in the United States. To learn more about it, go to Women's Rights National Historic Park and click on "The Convention," "The Participants," and "Related Events." Also, carefully read the Declaration of Sentiments adopted by the participants at the Women's Rights Convention. What were the connections between the early women's rights movement in the United States and the movement to abolish slavery? How does the Declaration of Sentiments reflect the rhetoric and ideas espoused by Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, and other men who had been involved in the American and French Revolutions a generation earlier? Compare and contrast the Declaration of Sentiments with a work by Argentinean feminist Maria Eugenia Echenique, The Emancipation of Women (1876). Does she express attitudes similar to those of her American counterparts? Does she use the language of the American and French Revolutions? Why do you think these women's calls for their inclusion in the political life of these new nations were not heeded until the early twentieth centuries?

Activity Four:

As the first three web activities demonstrate, American societies during the nineteenth century were strongly divided over the issues of race, ethnicity, and gender. In many instances, the ways in which they dealt with these issues still define these nations today. Many of these tensions were exacerbated by the Industrial Revolution. Industrialization, particularly the advances in transportation, allowed for massive immigration into the new nations of the Americas. To explore this topic further, go to Peopling North America: Population Movements & Migration. Click on "Section 5: Asian and African Labour: Indenture and Beyond" and then read the text and study the images at this site. (Click on "Section 5.1" on the left-hand side of your screen after reading the introduction. Then follow the arrows at the end of each section until you complete the tutorial.) Also study the map at Library of Congress, Map of Migration Patterns, 1858.

Discuss how industrialization in the nineteenth century changed the ethnic composition of American societies and the ways in which these societies coped with the changes. Consider the following questions as you craft your response: What was indentured servitude? When and where did this form of labor develop? What changes in the global economy, in addition to the abolishment of the Atlantic slave trade, made the growth of this institution possible? Where did indentured servants originate? What areas in the Americas used this form of labor? What efforts did the American societies make to include or exclude these new social groups, and how did these groups respond to such opportunities and challenges? How did the development of indentured servitude shape the history of the Americas in the twentieth century?

Indentured servants were not the only immigrants who were arriving in the Americas at this time. Millions of European free laborers also crossed the Atlantic during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. A large number of Asian free laborers also made their way to the Americas. To learn more about these migrations, review Library of Congress, Map of Migration Patterns, 1858. In addition, you can find many statistics and primary materials on the web about this phenomenon in the United States and Canada. For example, study the graph and chart at Bar Chart: U.S. Immigration, 1820-1970 and the material at Region and Country or Area of Birth of the Foreign-Born Population, With Geographic Detail Shown in Decennial Census Publications of 1930 or Earlier: 1850 to 1930 and 1960 to 1990. (Study the second chart only.) Now read the articles and study the images at The Immigrant Journey and Harper's Weekly: The Chinese American Experience. Explain why and how the immigration patterns of free laborers to the United States shifted around the turn of the century and what conflicts arose in the nation as a result. Begin by tracking both the increase in immigration during this period and the sources of this immigration. Use the first two sites mentioned to find this information. The second site provides clues that illuminate the reasons why this increase and shift in immigration occurred.

To compare the Canadian and the American experiences, go to The Peopling of Canada: 1891-1921 and complete the tutorial. Then analyze why and how the immigration patterns of free laborers to Canada changed around the turn of the century and what conflicts arose in that country as a result. List the similarities and differences between the United States and Canadian immigrant experiences. Possible topics might include the sources of immigration, the reactions of the native-born, and settlement patterns. Was the Canadian immigration experience around the turn of the century very similar, slightly similar with some significant differences, or not at all similar to the American experience? Defend your answer.