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The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, Second Edition
Richard W. Bulliet, Pamela Kyle Crossley, Daniel R. Headrick, Steven W. Hirsch, Lyman L. Johnson, David Northrup
Audio Pronunciation Guide


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Alphabetical Listing


Chapters:
1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35


Chapter 1

TermPronunciation
Yorubayoh-roo-bah
Oduduwaoh-DOO-doo-wah
Beijingbay-jeeng
Australopithecus africanusaw-strah-loh-PITH-uh-kuhs ah-frih-KAH-nuhs
Australopithecineaw-strah-loh-PITH-uh-seen
hominidHOM-uh-nid
PleistocenePLY-stuh-seen
Olduvaiol-DOO-vy
Homo habilisHOH-moh HAB-uh-luhs
Homo erectusHOH-moh ee-REK-tuhs
Homo sapiensHOH-moh SAY-pee-enz
Paleolithicpay-lee-oh-LITH-ik
Neolithicnee-oh-LITH-ik
Vallon Pont-d’Arcvah-LON pon-DAHRK
Tehuacánteh-wah-KAHN
maizemayz
quinoakee-NOH-uh
ZebuZEE-boo
HoloceneHAWL-oh-seen
lineageLIN-ee-ij
matrilinealmat-ruh-LIN-ee-uhl
patrilinealpat-ruh-LIN-ee-uhl
Kikuyiki-KOO-yoo
matriarchyMAY-tree-ahr-key
JerichoJER-ih-koh
DelhiDEL-ee
KrishnaKRISH-nuh
ArjunaAHR-joo-nuh
Çatal Hüyükcha-TAHL hoo-YOOK
legumeLEG-yoom

[Top]



Chapter 2

TermPronunciation
EnkiduEN-kee-doo
UrukOO-rook
TigrisTIE-gris
Euphratesyou-FRAY-teez
Huang Hehwang huh
TiamatTIE-ah-mat
ZagrosZAG-ruhs
Semiticsuh-MIT-ik
Aramaicar-uh-MAY-ik
Phoenicianfi-NEE-shuhn
Akkadianuh-KAY-dee-uhn
KassiteKAS-ite
ElamiteEE-luh-mite
JerichoJER-ih-koe
Çatal Hüyükcha-TAHL hoo-YOOK
lugalLOO-guhl
SargonSAHR-gone
AkkadAH-kahd
cuneiformkyoo-NEE-uh-form
AmoriteAM-uh-rite
HammurabiHAM-uh-rah-bee
lapis lazuliLAP-is LAZ-uh-lee
carneliankahr-NEEL-yuhn
anthropomorphican-thruh-puh-MORE-fik
zigguratZIG-uh-rat
EblaEH-bluh
Herodotushe-ROD-uh-tuhs
AswanAS-wahn
Faiyumfie-YOOM
MenesMEH-neez
Reray
ma’atmuh-AHT
DjoserJO-sur
Saqqarasuh-KAHR-uh
KhufuKOO-foo
KhefrenKEF-ren
hieroglyphicshigh-ruh-GLIF-iks
papyruspuh-PIE-ruhs
Levantluh-VANT
Puntpoont
Osirisoh-SIGH-ris
Ptahpuh-TAH
Heliopolishe-lee-OP-uh-lis
AmonAH-muhn
shawabtisshuh-WAB-tees
Sindsinned
Thartahr
Pamirpah-MEER
Himalayahim-uh-LAY-uh
HakraHAK-ruh
DelhiDEL-ee
Kathiawarkah-tee-uh-WAHR
Mohenjo-Daromoe-hen-joe-DAHR-oh
Dravidiandruh-VID-ee-uhn

[Top]



Chapter 3

TermPronunciation
Hatshepsuthat-SHEP-soot
Puntpoont
myrrhmurr
Deir el-BahriDIRE uhl-BAH-ree
HimalayasHIM-uh-LAY-uhz
Pamirpah-MEER
Tiantee-en
Takla MakanTAH-kluh muh-KAHN
GobiGO-bee
Yangziyang-zuh
Xinjiangshin-jyahng
loessless
Shangshahng
Henanheh-nahn
Gansugahn-soo
Anyangahn-yahng
Zhoujoe
Weiway
LuoyangLWOE-yahng
DaoistDOW-ist
Qinchin
KassiteKAS-ite
MariMAH-ree
Mitannimih-TAH-nee
HittiteHIT-ite
Hattushahaht-tush-SHAH
AnkaraANG-kuh-ruh
Akkadianuh-KAY-dee-uhn
Elamiteee-luh-mite
HyksosHICK-soes
KamoseKAH-mose
AhmoseAH-mose
Tuthmosistuth-MOE-sis
Amenhotepah-muhn-HOE-tep
AtenAHT-n
AmonAH-muhn
Amarnauh-MAHR-nuh
Nefertitinef-uhr-TEE-tee
Tutankhamuntoot-ahng-KAH-muhn
Ramessesram-ih-SEEZ
AlalakhUH-luh-luhk
UgaritOO-guh-reet
AswanAS-wahn
Khartoumkahr-TOOM
Napatana-PAY-tuh
Gebel BarkalJEB-uhl BAHR-kahl
MeroëMER-oh-ee
shawabtishuh-WAB-tee
AksumAhk-soom
Minoanmih-NO-uhn
Mycenaeanmy-suh-NEE-uhn
MinotaurMIN-uh-tor
DaedalusDED-ih-luhs
CnossusNOSS-suhs
PhaistosFIE-stuhs
Malliamahl-YAH
Agamemnonag-uh-MEM-non
Mycenaemy-SEE-nee
TheseusTHEE-see-uhs
TirynsTEER-inz
PylosPIE-lohs
IolcusYOL-kuhs
Cyclopessigh-KLOE-pees
Achillesuh-KIL-eez
Ahhijawauh-key-YAW-wuh
Achaeansuh-KEY-uhns
EkweshECK-wesh

[Top]



Chapter 4

TermPronunciation
Tyretire
OlmecOHL-meck
Chavíncha-BEAN
La VentaLA BEN-tah
Tres ZapotesTRACE zah-POE-tace
Chavín de Huántarcha-BEAN day WAHN-tar
Celtskelts
Lugloog
Eponaeh-POH-nuh
CernunnosKURN-you-nuhs
Urartuur-RAHR-too
KalhuKAL-oo
NinevehNIN-uh-vuh
TiglathpileserTIG-lath-pih-LEE-zuhr
Ashurbanipalah-shur-BAH-nuh-pahl
Shephelahsheh-FEH-luh
Gomorrahguh-MORE-uh
Apiruuh-PEE-roo
Astarteuh-STAHR-tee
NebuchadnezzarNAB-oo-kuhd-nez-uhr
Deuteronomicdoo-tuhr-uh-NAHM-ik
Phoenicianfi-NEE-shunn
PhoinikesFOY-nee-kes
ByblosBIB-loss
Berytusbuh-RIE-tuhs
Sareptasuh-REP-tuh
MelqartMEL-kahrt
ByrsaBURR-suh
TanitTAH-nit
tophetTOE-fet
XenophonZEN-uh-fuhn
NabopolassarNAB-oh-poe-lass-uhr

[Top]



Chapter 5

TermPronunciation
Herodotusheh-ROD-uh tuhs
Dariusduh-RIE-uhs
CaucasusKAW-kuh-suhs
Baluchistanbuh-loo-chi-STAN
Achaemenida-KEY-muh-nid
Cambyseskam-BIE-sees
ScythianSITH-ee-uhn
satrapSAY-trap
Ahasuerusuh-HAZZ-yoo-ear-uhs
XerxesZERK-sees
Naqsh-i RustamNUHK-shee ROOS-tuhm
Ahuramazdaah-HOOR-uh-MAZZ-duh
Zoroastrianismzo-ro-ASS-tree-uh-niz-uhm
Angra MainyuANG-ruh MINE-yoo
polisPOE-lis
HellenesHELL-leans
oligarchyOLL-ih-gahr-key
anthropomorphican-thruh-puh-MORE-fik
PythiaPITH-ee-uh
Archilochusahr-KIL-uh-kuhs
Xenophaneszeh-NOFF-eh-nees
helotHELL-ut
Thucydidesthoo-SID-ih-dees
PeloponnesePELL-eh-puh-neze
Pisistratuspie-SIS-truh-tuhs
Dionysiadie-uh-NIZ-ee-uh
Panathenaeapan-ath-uh-NEE-uh
PericlesPER-eh-kleez
Eretriaer-EH-tree-uh
Thermopylaethuhr-MOP-uh-lee
SalamisSAH-lah-miss
triremeTRY-reem
Piraeuspih-RAY-uhs
Aristophanesar-uh-STOFF-uh-neze
Thesmophoriathes-moe-FOE-ree-uh
Antigonear-TIG-uh-nee
Lysistratalis-uh-STRAH-tuh
GaugamelaGAW-guh-mee-luh
Seleucidsih-LOO-sid
Ptolemaictawl-uh-MAY-ik
Antigonidan-TIG-uh-nid
PtolemiesTAWL-uh-meze
Achaeanuh-KEY-uhn

[Top]



Chapter 6

TermPronunciation
BosporusBAHS-puhr-uhs
Constantinoplecahn-stan-tih-NO-pul
Qinchin
Weiway
Chang’anchahng-ahn
LuoyangLWOE-yahng
XinjiangSHIN-jyahng
XiongnuSHE-OONG-noo
Suisway
Tangtahng

[Top]



Chapter 7

TermPronunciation
ArjunaAHR-joo-nuh
KrishnaKRISH-nuh
VedasVAY-duhs
Upanishadsoo-PAHN-ih-shahds
MauryanMORE-yuhn
Himalayashim-uh-LAY-uhs
Thartahr
Deccande-KAN
Kshatriyakshuh-TREE-yuh
VaishyaVIESH-yuh
ShudraSHOOD-ra
JainismJINE-iz-uhm
bodhisattvaboe-dih-SUT-vuh
Mahayanamah-huh-YAH-nuh
Theravadathere-eh-VAH-duh
MauryaMORE-yuh
Faxianfah-shee-en
satisuh-TEE
Malaymuh-LAY
Xuanzangshoo-wen-zahng
maharajamah-huh-RAH-juh
Srivijavasree-vih-JUH-yuh
Myanmarmyahn-MAH
ThailandTIE-land
Laoslouse
Bruneibroo-NIE

[Top]



Chapter 8

TermPronunciation
Po Zhuyiboh joo-yee
Sogdianasog-dee-A-nuh
SamarkandSAM-mar-kand
Bukharaboo-CAR-ruh
Chang’anchahng-ahn
Tangtahng
Zhang Jianjahng jee-en
Ferghanafer-GAH-nuh
BactriaBAK-tree-uh
Mozambiquemoe-zam-BEEK
Erythraeaneh-RITH-ree-an
TuaregTWAH-reg
Tunisiatoo-NEE-zhee-uh
SahelSAH-hel
Sijilmasasih-jil-MAS-suh
TahertTAH-hert
GhanaGAH-nuh
Soninkesoh-NIN-kay
AwdaghostOW-duh-gost
Almoravidal-moe-RAH-vid
MarrakeshMAH-rah-kesh
Zairezah-EER
Mbutim-BOO-tee
KhoisanKOI-sahn
Faxianfah-shee-en
Xuanzangshoo-wen-zahng

[Top]



Chapter 9

TermPronunciation
Ghadir al-Khummga-DEER al-KUM
Shi’iteSHE-ite
SunniSUN-nee
Sasanidsuh-SAH-nid
Palmyrapal-MY-ruh
Shahan-shahSHAH-han-SHAH
Qurayshkoo-RYYSH
Ka’baKAH-buh
Khadijakah-DEE-juh
AllahAH-luh
Abu Bakrab-boo BAK-uhr
hijraHIJ-ruh
ummaUM-muh
A’ishaAH-ee-shah
khalifakah-LEE-fuh
Qurankuh-RAHN
Uthmanooth-MAHN
Mu’awiyamoo-AH-we-yuh
Umayyadoo-MY-ad
Khurasankor-uh-SAHN
Abbasidah-BASS-id
Harun al-Rashidhah-ROON al-rah-SHEED
mamlukMAM-luke
BuyidBOO-yid
Samanidsah-MAN-id
FatimidFAT-uh-mid
Fustatfuss-TAHT
Abd al-RahmanAHB-d al-ruh-MAHN
Ibn RushdIB-uhn RUSHED
Averroësuh-VERR-oh-eez
Ibn TufaylIB-uhn too-FILE
Ibn al-ArabiIB-uhn ahl-AH-rah-bee
ulamaoo-leh-MAH
Ibn TumartIB-uhn TOO-mahrt
AlmohadAL-moe-had
Seljuksel-JOOK
TughrilTUUG-ruhl
ManzikertMANZ-ih-kuhrt
SaracenSAR-uh-suhn
Nur al-Din ibn ZangiNOOR-al-DEEN ib-uhn ZAN-gee
Ain Jalutine jah-LOOT
hadithhah-DEETH
Qayrawankire-ah-WAHN
Ibn al-HaythamIB-uhn al-HY-tham
madrasaMAH-dras-uh

[Top]



Chapter 10

TermPronunciation
CharlemagneSHAHR-leh-mane
Carolingiankah-roe-LIN-gee-uhn
Varangiansva-RAN-gee-anz
Constantinoplecahn-stan-tih-NO-pul
Bordeauxbore-DOE
hauberkHAW-berk
Bayeuxbay-YUH
Dhuodado-OH-dah
patriarchatePAY-tree-ar-kayt
schismSKIZ-uhm
Monophysitemuh-NAH-fi-site
ArianismAIR-ree-uh-niz-uhm
Nicaeaneye-SEE-uh
HildebrandHILL-de-brand
Bolognaboe-LOAN-yuh
ClunyKLOO-nee
Romanesqueroe-man-ESK
pontifex maximusPAHN-tih-fex MAX-ih-muhs
Alexius Comnenusuh-LEX-see-uhs kom-NAY-nuhs
Hagia SophiaAH-yah SOH-fee-uh
Cyrillicsih-RIL-ik
Dnieperd-NYEP-er
KievKEE-yev
NovgorodNOHV-goh-rod
VladimirVLAD-ih-mir
BresciaBREH-shee-uh
Sienasee-EN-uh
Brugesbroozh
YpresEEP-r
Edessaih-DESS-suh

[Top]



Chapter 11

TermPronunciation
Ge Hongguh hoong
Suisway
Tangtahng
Songsoong
Weiway
Chang'anchahng-ahn
Yangziyahng-zeh
Li Shiminlee shir-meen
MahayanaMah-HAH-YAH-nah
Guangzhougwahng-jo
UigurWEE-ger
An Lushanahn loo-shahn
Wu Zhaowoo jow
Yang Guifeiyahng gway-fay
Bo Zhuyibaw joo-ee
QinghaiCHING-hie
SichuanSUH-chwahn
Xinjiangshin-jee-yahng
Nan Zhaonan-jow
Liaolee-OW
Kitankee-tan
Beijingbay-jeeng
TanggutTAHNG-gut
Kaifengkie-fuhng
Hangzhouhahng-jo
SillaSILL-ah or SHILL-ah
KoryoKAW-ree-oh
TaikaTIE-kah
NaraNAH-rah
Fujiwarafoo-jee-WAH-rah
Kamakurakah-mah-KOO-rah
Annamahn-nahm
Dai Vietdie vee-yet

[Top]



Chapter 12

TermPronunciation
MayaMY-ah
Wac-Chanil-Ahauwac-cha-NEEL-ah-HOW
Dos Pilasdohs PEE-las
Naranjona-ROHN-hoe
Chavíncha-VEEN
Teotihuacanteh-o-tee-WAH-kahn
Quetzalcoatlkate-zahl-CO-ah-tal
chinampaschee-NAM-pahs
ToltecTOLL-tek
TulaTOO-la
Topilitzintow-PEELT-zeen
Mexicameh-SHE-ca
Tenochititlanteh-noch-TIT-lan
Moctezumamock-teh-ZU-ma
Huitzilopochtliwheat-zeel-oh-POSHT-lee
Anasaziah-nah-SAH-zee
khipusKEY-pooz
aylluaye-YOU
mit'aMEET-ah
MocheMO-che
WariWAH-ree
Chimúchee-MOO
Tiwanakutee-wah-NA-coo

[Top]



Chapter 13

TermPronunciation
TemüjinTEM-uh-jin
ToghorilTOE-hoe-rill
Keraitskeh-rates
Genghis KhanGENG-iz KAHN
ÖgödeiERG-uh-day
BatuBAH-too
VolgaVOHL-gah
Güyükgi-yik
Ain Jalutine jah-LOOT
Khwarazmshahhwa-RAZZ-um-shah
Balkhbahlk
HülegüHE-luh-gee
Marco Polomar-koe POE-loe
KaffaKAH-fah
Crimeacry-MEE-ah
Il-khanIL-con
KipchakKIP-chahk
Saraisah-RYE
halalhaa-LAAL
Tabriztaw-BREEZE
MarkuzMARK-uhz
Rabban Saumarahb-bahn SAU-ma
Ghazanhaz-zan
Rashid al-Dinra-SHEED ad-DEEN
Timurtem-EER
Jagadaijahg-ah-die
Juvainijoo-VINE-nee
Ibn Khaldunee-bin hal-DOON
Nasir al-Din Tusinah-zer ad-DEEN toos
Alamutah-lah-moot
SeljukSEL-jook
Omar Khayyamoh-mar KIE-yam
Maragamah-rah-gah
UigurWEE-ger
KhubilaiKOO-bih-lie
Ulugh Begoo-look bek
Fibonaccifee-bo-NACH-chee
Ghiyas al-Din Jamshid al-Kashigee-YASS ad-DIN jam-sheed ak-KAHSH
SufismSOO-fiz-uhm
Riazanree-AH-zahn
Kievkee-yef
dengaDENG-ah
tamgaTAHM-gah
Nevskiinih-EFF-skee
Ukraineyou-CRANE
Ivanee-VAHN
Teutonictwo-TOHN-ik
Lithuanialith-oo-WAY-nee-ah
MamlukMAM-look
ibn Salimee-bin sah-leem

[Top]



Chapter 14

TermPronunciation
ÖgödeiERG-uh-day
Yelu Chucaiyay-loo CHOO-tsye
Songsoong
KhubilaiKOO-bih-lie
Yuanyu-wenn
Tangtahng
TemüjinTEM-uh-jin
Beijingbay-JING
Karakorumkah-rah-KOR-um
lamaLAH-mah
khan-balikhkahn-BAL-ik
Shangdushahng-DOO
XanaduZAH-nah-doo
Huang Dao Pohwahng DOW poh
YunnanYOON-nahn
HülegüHE-luh-gee
Zhu YuanzhangJOO yuwen JAHNG
Nanjingnahn-JING
Yongleyoong-LAW
Zheng HeJEHNG HUH
Bruneibroo-NIE
Luo GuanzhongLAW GWAHB-JOONG
JingdezhenJING-deh-JUHN
Hwanghnyong-sahwahng-NEEYAHNG-sah
Tripitakatri-PIH-tah-kah
KoryoKAW-ree-oh
YiYEE
han'gulHAHN-goor
HakataHAH-kah-tah
KyushuKYOO-shoo
Kamakurakah-mah-KOO-rah
kamikaziKUM-i-kuh-zee
Ashikagaah-shee-KAH-gah

[Top]



Chapter 15

TermPronunciation
Abu Bakra-BOO BAK-uhr
Ibn BattutaIB-uhn ba-TOO-tuh
PygmyPIG-mee
TuaregTWAH-reg
Fulanifoo-LAH-nee
DelhiDEL-ee
Sri Lankasree LAHNG-kuh
Sinhalesesin-huh-LEEZ
AngkorANG-kor
GhanaGAH-nuh
Zambezizam-BEE-zee
Zimbabwezim-BAHB-way
bilad al-sudanbih-LAD uhs-soo-DAN
TakrurTAHK-roor
Sumangurusoo-muhn-GOO-roo
Sundiatasoon-JAH-tuh
Malinkemuh-LING-kay
Mansa Kankan MusaMAHN-suh KAHN-kahn MOO-suh
Mansa SuleimanMAHN-suh SOO-lay-mahn
Timbuktutim-buk-TOO
Kanem-BornuKAH-nuhm-BOR-noo
Iltutmishil-TOOT-mish
Raziyarah-ZEE-uh
Ala-ud-din Khaljiuh-LAH-ud-DEEN KAL-jee
Gujaratgoo-juh-RAHT
Tughlugtoog-LOOK
Firuz Shahfuh-ROOZ shah
Bahmanibah MAHN-ee
Vijayanagarvee-juh-yah-NAH-gar
dhowdow
Swahiliswah-HEE-lee
Malaccameh-LAK-eh
sawahilsuh-WAH-hil
AdenAY-den
ZeilaZEYE-luh
CalicutKAL-ih-cut
ZamorinZAH-much-ruhn
Majapahitmah-jah-PAH-hit
Palembangpah-lem-BONG
Jainjine
AhmadabadAH-muhd-ah-bahd
LalibelaLAH-lee-BEL-uh
UrduER-doo
Nalandanuh-LAN-duh
Biharbee-HAHR
satisuh-TEE

[Top]



Chapter 16

TermPronunciation
Aeneas Sylvius Piccolominiuh-NEE-uhs SIL-vee-uhs pee-kuh-lo-MEE-nee
Aquinasuh-KWY-nuhs
KaffaKAH-fah
GenoeseJEN-oh-eez
Seinesen
Hanseatichan-see-AT-ik
Brugesbroozh
Ghentgent [hard g as in get]
YpresEE-pruh
Champagnesham-PAIN
MediciMED-ih-chee
FuggersFOOG-uhrz
AristotleAR-ih-stah-tahl
Ibn SinaIB-unh SEE-nah
Avicennaav-uh-SEN-uh
Bolognabuh-LOHN-yuh
scholasticismskoh-LAS-tih-sizm
Summa TheologicaSOOM-uh thee-uh-LOH-jih-kuh
Dante AlighieriDAHN-tay ah-lee-GYEH-ree
TuscanyTUS-kuh-nee
Franceso Petrarchfran-CHES-koh PAY-trahrk
Giovanni Boccacciojo-VAH-nee boh-KAH-chee-oh
Erasmusuh-RAZ-muhs
Johann Gutenbergyoh-HAHN GOO-ten-burg
GiottoJAW-toh
Jan van Eyckyahn vahn-IKE
Leonardo da Vincilay-own-AHR-doh dah-VIN-chee
Michelangelomy-kuhl-AN-juh-low
papacyPAY-puh-see
Avignonah-vee-NYON
duchyDUTCH-ee
Coeurcur
Algarveahl-GAHRV
Ceutasay-OO-tuh

[Top]



Chapter 17

TermPronunciation
MalayMay-LAY
Melanesiamel-uh-NEE-zhuh
Marquesasmar-KAY-suhs
HeyerdahlHIGH-uhr-dahl
dhowdow
Zheng Hejung huh
CalicutKAL-ih-kut
Swahiliswah-HEE-lee
Madeiramuh-DEER-uh
AzoresA-zorz
Mansa Kankan MusaMAHN-suh KAHN-kahn MOO-suh
ArawakAR-uh-wahk
Ceutasay-OO-tuh
SagresSAH-gresh
caravelKAR-uh-vel
Sierra Leonesee-ER-uh lee-OWN
São Tomésow toh-MAY
Cabralkah-BRAHL
Tordesillastor-duh-SEE-yuhs
Moluccasmuh-LOO-kuhz
Balboabal-BOH-uh
manikongomah-NEE-KONG-goh
Gujaratgoo-juh-RAHT
Malaccamuh-LAH-kuh
entrepôtON-truh-poh
Macaomuh-COW
MughalMOO-gahl
conquistadorkon-KEY-stuh-dor
Cortéskor-TEZ
Quetzalcoatlket-zahl-COH-ah-tal
Tenochtitlanteh-noch-TIT-lan
Moctezumamock-teh-ZOO-ma

[Top]



Chapter 18

TermPronunciation
tsarzahr
MediciMED-ih-chee
HabsburgHABZ-berg
Jiménezhe-MEH-nes
Richelieuree-shuh-LYOO
MazarinMAZ-uh-rin, maz-uh-RAN
Colbertkohl-BEAR
Nantesnahnt
Bordeauxbor-DOH
bourgeoisieboor-zwah-ZEE
noblesse de robeno-BLES deh ROHB
noblesse d'épéeno-BLES day-PAY
Galileo Galileigal-uh-LAY-oh gal-uh-LAY-ee

[Top]



Chapter 19

TermPronunciation
Potosípoh-toh-SEE
encomiendain-co-mee-EN-dah
mitaMEE-tah
hidalgosee-DAHL-goes
quilomboskey-LOM-bos
palenquespah-LENK-kays
mestizomess-TEE-zoh
castasCAZ-tahs
Quebeckwuh-BEC
coureurs de boiskoo-RUHR day BWA
métismay-TEES

[Top]



Chapter 20

TermPronunciation
Olaudah Equianooh-LAU-duh ay-kwee-AHN-oh
IgboEE-boh
Saint Dominguesan do-MANGH
grands blancsgrawn blawnk
petits blancspay-TEE blawnk
Guianasguy-AHN-uhs
Colbertkohl-BEAR
Exclusifek-skloo-SEEF
Benguelaben-GWAY-luh
Songhaisong-GAH-ee
DyulaJOO-lah
Ayuba Suleiman Dialloah-YOO-bah SOO-lay-mahn JAH-loh
QuaqueKWAH-kay

[Top]



Chapter 21

TermPronunciation
Qazvinkaz-VEEN
SafaviSAH-fah-vee
Gallipoligah-LIP-po-lee
KosovoKO-so-vo
BayazidBAY-yan-zeed
MehmedMEH-met
Selimseh-LEEM
SuleimanSOO-lay-man
JanissaryJAN-nih-say-ree
devshirmedev-sheer-MEH
Osmanlios-MAHN-lee
askeriAS-keh-ree
rayaRAH-yah
Shari’asha-REE-ah
ulamaoo-leh-MAH
IzmirIZ-meer
MochaMOH-kuh
Patrona Halilpa-TROH-nuh ha-LEEL
IsmailIS-ma-eel
qizilbashKIH-zil-bahsh
Tahmasptah-MAHSP
NajafNAH-jaf
Isfahanis-fah-HAHN
anderunan-deh-ROON
BaburBAH-bur
DelhiDEL-ee
mansabsMAN-sabz
mansabdarsman-sab-DAHRZ
RajputsRAHJ-putz
Sikhsick
Aurangzebow-rang-ZEB
Nizam al-Mulknee-ZAHM al-MULK
nawabNAH-wab
OudhOW-ad
Dupleixdoo-PLAY
Pondicherrypon-dir-CHEH-ree
Mindanaomin-duh-NOW
BruneiBROO-nie
AchehAH-cheh
sawahilsuh-WAH-hil
ambergrisAM-ber-grees
Swahiliswah-HEE-lee
Ambonam-BOHN
MataramMAH-tah-ram

[Top]



Chapter 22

TermPronunciation
AmurAH-moor
Qingching
SamarkandSAM-mar-kahnd
Bukharaboo-CAR-ruh
Kashgarkahsh-gar
Matteo Riccima-TAY-o REE-chee
Beijingbay-JING
DeshimaDUH-shee-ma
Nagasakinah-gah-SAH-kee
MuscovyMUSS-koe-vee
boyarBOY-ar
RomanovROE-man-off or roe-MAN-off
Yermak TimofeyovichYAIR-mak tih-mo-FAY-oh-vich or tih-mo-fay-OH-vich
JingdezhenJING-deh-JUHN
Dehuaduh-HUA
dalai lamaDAH-lie LAH-mah
Li Zichenglee ZUH-cheng
Wangwahng
Michel Boymmee-SHELL bwam
KangxiKAHNG-shee
Qianlongchee-YEN-loong
Tokugawatoe-koo-GAH-wah
Ieyasuee-yeh-YAH-soo
Kyotokee-YO-toe
EdoED-doe
samuraiSAH-moo-rie
OsakaOH-sah-kah
sakeSAH-kay
MitsuiMIT-soo-ee
Date Masamunidah-tay mah-sah-moo-nee
Honshuhahn-shoo
Okinawaoh-kee-NAH-wah
roninROH-neen
seppukuSEP-poo-koo

[Top]



Chapter 23

TermPronunciation
Saint Dominguesan doe-MANG
Toussaint L'Ouverturetoo-SAN loo-ver-CHORE
ancien régimeahn-see-EN ray-ZHEEM
Carolus Linnaeuskar-ROLL-uhs lin-NEE-uhs
Denis Diderotduh-nee DEE-duh-roe
Jean-Jacques Rousseauzhahn-zhock roo-SOE
Qingching
Thayendanegeata YEHN dah NEY geh ah
bourgeoisieboor-zwah-ZEE
Versaillesvuhr-SIGH
Bastillebass-TEEL
Antoinetteann twah-NET
JacobinJAK-uh-bin
Girondistjuh-RON-dist
RobespierreROBES-pee-air
gens de couleurzhahn deh koo-LUHR
Ogéoh-ZHAY
MetternichMET-uhr-nik
Louis Philippeloo-EE-fee-LEEP

[Top]



Chapter 24

TermPronunciation
Disraelidiz-RAY-lee
laissez fairelay-say fair
ZollvereinTSOLL-feh-rine
utopianyou-TOE-pee-uhn

[Top]



Chapter 25

TermPronunciation
Benito Juárezbeh-NEE-toh WAH-rez
JuntaHUN-tah
Simón Bolívarsee-MOAN bow-LEE-varh
José de San Martínhoe-SAY deh san mar-TEEN
Miguel Hidalgo y Costillamee-GEHL ee-DAHL-go ee cos-TEA-ah
José María Moreloshoe-SAY mah-REE-ah moh-RAY-los
Agustín de Iturbideah-goos-TEEN deh ee-tur-BEE-deh
caudillokouh-DEE-yoh
José Antonio Páezhoe-SAY an-TOE-nee-oh PAH-eez
Juan Manuel de Rosashuan man-WELL deh ROH-sas
Francisco Solano Lópezfran-CEES-co so-LAN-oh LOH-pez
Tecumsehteh-CUM-sah
Mapuchesmah-POO-chez
MayaMY-ah

[Top]



Chapter 26

TermPronunciation
Mysoremy-SORE
SokotoSOH-kuh-toh
Nguning-GOO-nee
Zimbabwezim-BAH-bway
Lesotholuh-SOO-too
HausaHOW-suh
Usuman dan FodioOO-soo-mahn dahn FOH-dee-oh
Fulanifoo-LAH-nee
AswanAS-wahn
Ismailis-MAH-eel
Téwodrostay-WOH-druhs
Yohannesyoh-HAHN-nehs
MenelikMEN-uh-lik
'Abd al-QadirAHB-dahl-KAH-deer
Asanteuh-SHAHN-tee
Sierra Leonesee-ER-uh lee-OWN
Nyamwezinn-nyahm-WAY-zee
Swahiliswah-HEE-lee
Khartoumkhar-TOOM
MughalMOO-guhl
Marathamuh-RAH-tuh
nawabNAH-wab
sepoySEE-poy
Sikhseek
choleraKAHL-uhr-uh
Bramo SamajBRAH-moh suh-MAHJ
satisuh-TEE
Guianaghee-AH-nuh
Mauritiusmoh-RIH-uhs
Afrikaneraf-rih-KAHN-uhr
Melanesianmel-uh-NEE-zhuhn
MaoriMOW-ree [ow as in cow]
ambergrisAM-ber-grees

[Top]



Chapter 27

TermPronunciation
Qingching
Heshenhuh-shun
Miaomee-ow
Selimseh-LEEM
JanissariesJAN-nih-say-rees
MahmudMACH-mood
Ibrahim PashaEEB-RAH-heem PAH-shah
Muhammad Alimoo-HAM-mad AH-lee
TanzimatTAHNZ-ee-MAT
Abdul Mejidab-dul MAY-jeed
qadiKAW-dee
Crimeancry-ME-uhn
Taipingtie-PING
Lin Zexulin zuh-SHOO
Shanghaishahng-hie
Hong Xiuquanhoong shee-OH-chew-an
Zeng Guofanzung gwoh-FAN
Cixitsuh-shee
SatsumaSAT-soo-mah
ChoshuCHOE-shoo
KanagawaKAH-nah-GAH-wah
MeijiMAY-gee

[Top]



Chapter 28

TermPronunciation
Otto von BismarkUTT-oh fun BIS-mark
Das KapitalDUSS cop-ee-TALL
ReichstagRIKES-tog
Giuseppe Mazzinijew-SEP-pay mots-EE-nee
Taipingtie-PING
CixiTSEE-she
MeijiMAY-gee
Mutsuhitomoo-tsoo-HE-toe
zaibatsuzye-BOT-soo

[Top]



Chapter 29

TermPronunciation
Port Saidport sah-EED
Ismailis-mah-EEL
khedivekuh-DEEV
XhosaKOH-sah
Cetshwayoset-SHWAH-yo
Isandhlwanaee-sawn-dull-WAH-nah
Transvaaltrans-VAHL
Ndebeleen-duh-BELL-ay
MahdiMAH-dee
Hererohair-AIR-oh
Asanteuh-SAWN-tay
AdowaAH-doe-ah
cinchonasin-CHO-nah
Mahanmah-HAHN
gutta-perchagut-tah-PER-cha
Mauritiusmaw-REE-shuss

[Top]



Chapter 30

TermPronunciation
Ententeon-TONT
Blaise Diagneblez dee-AHN-yuh
HejazHEE-jaz
Faisalfie-SAHL
Chaim Weizmannhi-um VITES-mun
tsarzahr
Georges Clemenceauzhorzh cluh-mon-SO
Versaillesvuhr-SIGH
Saint-Germainsan-chur-MEN
zaibatsuzie-BOT-soo
Cixitsuh-shee
Sun Yat-sensoon yot-SEN
Yuan Shikaiyou-AHN she-KIE
Guomindanggwo-min-dong
Chiang Kai-shekchang kie-shek
Le Corbusierluh cor-booz-YEH
Ludwig Mies van der RoheLOOD-vig MEES fon der ROW-uh

[Top]



Chapter 31

TermPronunciation
kulaksCOO-lox
gulagGOO-log
Il Duceeel DOO-chay
Mein Kampfmine compf
LebensraumLAY-bens-rowm
ReichstagRIKES-tog
FührerFEW-er
Guomindanggwo-min-dong
Manchukuoman-CHEW-coo-oh
Chiang Kai-shekchang kie-shek
Jiangxijang-she
Mao Zedongma-oh zay-dong
ShaanxiSHAWN-she
WehrmachtVAIR-mokt
blitzkriegBLITS-creeg

[Top]



Chapter 32

TermPronunciation
Zapatazeh-PAH-teh
GandhiGAHN-dee
dhotiDOE-tee
GhanaGAH-nuh
Ibadanee-BAH-dahn
Nairobinie-ROE-bee
SahelSAH-hel
Diagnedee-AHN-yuh
Haile SelassieHI-lee seh-LASS-ee
maharajahmah-huh-RAH-juh
satisuh-TEE
DelhiDEL-ee
MughalMOO-guhl
ahimsauh-HIM-sah
satyagrahasuh-TYAH-gruh-huh
harijanHAH-ree-jahn
NehruNAY-roo
Jinnahjee-NAH
mestizomess-TEE-zoh
DiázDEE-as
Obregónoh-bray-GAWN
CallesKAH-yace
Lázaro CárdenasLAH-sah-roe KAHR-dih-nahs
pampasPOM-pus
oligarquíaoh-lee gar-KEE-ah
Buenos AiresBWAY-nihs AIR-eze
Rio de JaneiroREE-oh day zhuh-NAIR-oh
Manausmeh-NOWSE
Hipólito Irigoyenee-POH-lee-toe ee-ree-GO-yen
Getulio Vargasjay-TOO-lee-oh VAR-gus
Rio Grande do SulREE-oh GRAN-dee do SOOL
São Paulosow PAL-oh
favelafeh-VEL-luh
Estado Novoesh-TAH-doe NO-vo
José Uriburuhoe-SAY oo-ree-BOO-roo
Juan Perónhoo-AHN pair-OWN
Eva Duarte PerónAY-vuh doo-AR-tay pair-OWN
descamisadosdes-cah-mee-SAH-dohs

[Top]



Chapter 33

TermPronunciation
Diemdee-YEM
Ho Chi Minhhoe chee min
KhrushchevKROOSH-chef
Myanmarmyahn-MAH
Dienbienphudee-yen-bee-yen-FOO
Kwame NkrumahKWAH-mee nn-KROO-muh
Kikuyukih-KOO-you
Tsirinanatsee-REE-nah-nah
Sékou TouréSAY-koo too-RAY
apartheiduh-PAHRT-ate
Che Guevarachay guh-VAHR-uh
Gamal Abd al-Nasirgah-MAHL AHB-d al-NAH-suhr
al-Sadatal-seh-DAT
AswanAS-wahn
Mao Zedongmaow dzuh-dong
Jiang Qingjyahn ching
Faruqfuh-ROOK
FaysalFIE-suhl
Husaynhoo-SANE
ArafatAR-uh-fat

[Top]



Chapter 34

TermPronunciation
João Goulartjuwow go-LARHT
Salvador Allendesal-vah-DOR ah-YEHN-day
Augusto Pinochetah-GOOS-toh pin-oh-CHET
Isabel Martínez de PerónEES-ah-bell mar-TEEN-ehz deh pair-OWN
Sandinistassahn-din-EES-tahs
Violeta Chamorrovee-oh-LET-ah cha-MOR-roe
Farabundo Martífah-rah-BOON-doh mar-TEE
Manuel NoriegaMAN-wel no-ree-EGG-ah
Reza PahlaviREH-zah PAH-lah-vee
Ayatollah Ruhollah KhomeiniA-yat-ol-LAH ROOH-ol-LAH ko-MAY-nee
Shi’iteSHE-ite
Saddam Husainsah-DAHM who-SANE
keiretsukay-REHT-soo
Deng Xiaopingdung shee-yao-ping
Tiananmentee-yehn-ahn-men
Leonid Brezhnevleh-oh-NEED BREZ-nef
Solzhenitzensol-zhuh-NEET-sin
samizdatsah-meez-DAHT
GorbachevGORE-beh-CHOF
perestroikaper-ih-STROY-kuh
Karol WojtylaKAH-rol voy-TIL-ah
Nicolae Ceausescuneh-koh-LIE chow-SHES-koo
Lech Walesaleck wah-LESS-ah
Vaclav Havelvah-SLAV hah-VEL

[Top]



Chapter 35

TermPronunciation
Usamah bin Ladinoo-SAH-mah bin LAH-din
Vladimir ZworykinVLAD-ih-meer ZWOR-ih-kin
Uzbekistanuzz-BEK-ih-stan
KyrgyzstanKIR-gih-stan


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