| Questions to Consider
Ninety-five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences
When Pope Leo X (r. 1513-1521) declared a plenary indulgence
in 1517, he had no idea that this act would set in motion a series of
events that would ultimately lead to the fracturing of Western
religious unity. Indulgences had served the Papacy well over the
years as a means to raise needed revenues. Leo was hoping to fund the
renovation of St. Peter's basilica in Rome. Although some Christian
humanists and other critics of the Renaissance Papacy had protested
the increasingly venal nature of exchanging cash for the forgiveness
of sins, Martin Luther (1483-1546), a young professor of
theology at the University of Wittenberg in Saxony, attacked the
religious legitimacy of the selling of indulgences and questioned the
pope's authority to do so. On All Hallow's Eve, 1517, Luther made
public his "Ninety-five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of
Indulgences". Intended only as a basis for serious scholarly debate,
Luther's work touched off the firestorm known as the Protestant
Questions to Consider
How does Luther attack papal pardons from a religious
standpoint? Why does he consider indulgences useless?
Some German lords resented the sale of indulgences because of
their impact on the local economy. How does Luther address this
1. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ in saying "Repent ye"
(poenitentiam agite) etc., intended that the whole life of believers
should be penitence (poenitentia).
2. This word cannot be understood as sacramental penance
(poenitentia), that is, of the confession and satisfaction which are
performed under the ministry of priests.
3. It does not, however, refer solely to inward penitence
(poenitentia); nay such inward penitence is naught, unless it
outwardly produces various mortifications of the flesh.
4. The penalty (poena) thus continues as long as the hatred of
self (that is, true inward penitence); namely, till our entrance into
the kingdom of heaven.
5. The Pope has neither the will nor the power to remit any
penalties except those which he has imposed by his own authority, or
by that of the canons.
6. The Pope has no power to remit any guilt, except by declaring
and warranting it to have been remitted by God; or at most by
remitting cases reserved for himself; in which cases, if his power
were despised, guilt would certainly remain.
7. Certainly God remits no man's guilt without at the same time
subjecting him, humbled in all things, to the authority of his
representative the priest.
8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and no
burden ought to be imposed on the dying, according to them.
9. Hence, the Holy Spirit acting in the Pope does well for us in
that, in his decrees, he always makes exception of the article of
death and of necessity.
10. Those priests act unlearnedly and wrongly who, in the case of
the dying, reserve the canonical penances for purgatory.
20. Therefore the Pope, when he speaks of the plenary remission of
all penalties, does not mean really of all, but only of those imposed
21. Thus those preachers of indulgences are in error who say that
by the indulgences of the Pope a man is freed and saved from all
22. For in fact he remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which
they would have had to pay in this life according to the canons.
23. If any entire remission of all penalties can be granted to any
one it is certain that it is granted to none but the most perfect,
that is to very few.
24. Hence, the greater part of the people must needs be deceived
by this indiscriminate and high-sounding promise of release from
26. The Pope acts most rightly in granting remission to souls not
by the power of the keys (which is of no avail in this case) but by
the way of intercession.
27. They preach man who say that the soul flies out of Purgatory
as soon as the money thrown into the chest rattles.1
28. It is certain that, when the money rattles in the chest,
avarice and gain may be increased, but the effect of the intercession
of the Church depends on the will of God alone.
29. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory desire to be
redeemed from it--witness the story told of Saints Severinus
30. No man is sure of the reality of his own contrition, much less
of the attainment of plenary remission.
31. Rare as is a true penitent, so rare is one who truly buys
indulgences--that is to say, most rare.
32. Those who believe that, through letters of pardon, they are
made sure of their own salvation will be eternally damned along with
33. We must especially beware of those who say that these pardons
from the Pope are that inestimable gift of God by which man is
reconciled to God.
34. For the grace conveyed by these pardons has respect only to
the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, which are of human
35. They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that contrition is
not necessary for those who buy souls [out of purgatory] or buy
36. Every Christian who feels true compunction has of right
plenary remission of punishment and guilt even without letters of
37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has a share in
all the benefits of Christ and of the Church, given him by God, even
without letters of pardon.
38. The remission, however, imparted by the Pope is by no means to
be despised, since it is, as I have said, a declaration of the divine
39. It is a most difficult thing, even for the most learned
theologians, to exalt at the same time in the eyes of the people the
ample effect of pardons and the necessity of true contrition.
40. True contrition seeks and loves punishment; while the
ampleness of pardons relaxes it, and causes men to hate it, or at
least gives occasion for them to do so.
41. Apostolic pardons ought to be proclaimed with caution, lest
the people should falsely suppose that they are placed before other
good works of charity.
42. Christians should be taught that it is not the wish of the
Pope that the buying of pardons should be in any way compared to
works of mercy.
43. Christians should be taught that he who gives to a poor man,
or lends to a needy man, does better than if he bought pardons.
44. Because by works of charity, charity increases, and the man
becomes better; while by means of pardons, he does not become better,
but only freer from punishment.
45. Christians should be taught that he who sees any one in need,
and, passing him by, gives money for pardons, is not purchasing for
himself the indulgences of the Pope but the anger of God.
46. Christians should be taught that, unless they have superfluous
wealth, they are bound to keep what is necessary for the use of their
own households, and by no means to lavish it on pardons.
47. Christians should be taught that while they are free to buy
pardons they are not commanded to do so.
48. Christians should be taught that the Pope, in granting
pardons, has both more need and more desire that devout prayer should
be made for him than that money should be readily paid.
49. Christians should be taught that the Pope's pardons are useful
if they do not put their trust in them, but most hurtful if through
them they lose the fear of God.
50. Christians should be taught that, if the Pope were acquainted
with the exactions of the Preachers of pardons, he would prefer that
the Basilica of St. Peter should be burnt to ashes rather than that
it should be built up with the skin, flesh, and bones of his sheep.
51. Christians should be taught that as it would be the duty so it
would be the wish of the Pope even to sell, if necessary, the
Basilica of St. Peter, and to give of his own money to very many of
those from whom the preachers of pardons extract money.
52. Vain is the hope of salvation through letters of pardon, even
if a commissary--nay, the Pope himself--were to pledge
his own soul for them.
53. They were enemies of Christ and of the Pope who, in order that
pardons may be preached, condemn the word of God to utter silence in
54. Wrong is done to the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an
equal or longer time is spent on pardons than on it.
55. The mind of the Pope necessarily is that, if pardons, which
are a very small matter, are celebrated with single bells, single
processions, and single ceremonies, the Gospel, which is a very great
matter, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred
processions, and a hundred ceremonies.
56. The treasures of the Church, whence the Pope grants
indulgences, are neither sufficiently named nor known among the
people of Christ.
57. It is clear that they are at least not temporal treasures, for
these are not so readily lavished, but only accumulated, by many of
58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and of the saints, for
these, independently of the Pope, are always working grace to the
inner man, and the cross, death, and hell to the outer man.
67. Those indulgences, which the preachers loudly proclaim to be
the greatest graces, are seen to be truly such as regards the
promotion of gain.
68. Yet they are in reality most insignificant when compared to
the grace of God and the piety of the cross.
75. To think that the Papal pardons have such power that they
could absolve a man even if--by an impossibility--he had
violated the Mother of God, is madness.
76. We affirm on the contrary that Papal pardons cannot take away
even the least of venial sins, as regards its guilt.
77. The saying that, even if St. Peter were now Pope, he could
grant no greater graces, is blasphemy against St. Peter and the Pope.
78. We affirm on the contrary that both he and any other Pope has
greater graces to grant, namely, the Gospel, powers, gifts of
healing, etc. (1 Cor. xii.)
79. To say that the cross set up among the insignia of the Papal
arms is of equal power with the cross of Christ, is blasphemy.
80. Those bishops, priests and theologians who allow such
discourses to have currency among the people will have to render an
81. This license in the preaching of pardons makes it no easy
thing, even for learned men, to protect the reverence due to the Pope
against the calumnies, or, at all events, the keen questionings of
82. As for instance: Why does not the Pope empty purgatory for the
sake of most holy charity and of the supreme necessity of
souls--this being the most just of all reasons--if he
redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of that most fatal
thing, money, to be spent on building a basilica--this being a
very slight reason?
83. Again; why do funeral masses and anniversary masses for the
deceased continue, and why does not the Pope return, or permit the
withdrawal of, the funds bequeathed for this purpose, since it is a
wrong to pray for those who are already redeemed?
84. Again; what is this new kindness of God and the Pope, in that,
for money's sake, they permit an impious man and an enemy of God to
redeem a pious soul which loves God, and yet do not redeem that same
pious and beloved soul out of free charity on account of its own
85. Again; why is it that the penitential canons, long since
abrogated and dead in themselves, in very fact and not only by usage,
are yet still redeemed with money, through the granting of
indulgences, as if they were full of life?
86. Again; why does not the Pope, whose riches are at this day
more ample than those of the wealthiest of the wealthy, build the
single Basilica of St. Peter with his own money rather than with that
of poor believers?
87. Again; what does the Pope remit or impart to those who through
perfect contrition have a right to plenary remission and
88. Again; what greater good could the Church receive than if the
Pope, instead of once, as he does now, were to bestow these
remissions and participations a hundred times a day on any one of the
89. Since it is the salvation of souls, rather than money, that
the Pope seeks by his pardons, why does he suspend the letters and
pardons granted long ago, since they are equally efficacious?
91. If all these pardons were preached according to the spirit and
mind of the Pope, all these questions would be resolved with ease;
nay, would not exist.
Martin Luther, "Ninety-five Theses," in
Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European
History (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1898),