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> General Resources > Glossary

The Glossary for Western Civilizations, 5/e is for the complete text, Chapters 1 - 30.
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

absolutism A form of government in which sovereignty is vested in a single person, the king or queen; monarchs in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries based their authority on the theory of the divine right of kings?i.e., that they had received their authority from God and were responsible only to Him.

acropolis An elevated point within a city on which stood temples, altars, public monuments, and various dedications to the gods of the polis.

African National Congress (ANC) The main black nationalist organization in South Africa; it was led by Nelson Mandela.

Afrikaners The descendants of the Dutch in the Cape Colony.

age of commerce A period of heavy trading from 1570 to 1630 in which Southeast Asia exchanged its spices and other raw materials for textiles from India, silver from the Americas and Japan, and silk, ceramics, and manufactures from China.

Age of Division The period after the fall of the Han Dynasty, during which time China was divided into the Northern and Southern Dynasties.

age-grade systems Among the societies of Senegambia, groups of men and women whom the society initiated into adulthood at the same time.

agricultural revolution A gradual but profound change in agricultural methods that promoted accelerated economic growth.

Ahuramazda> The chief Iranian god, who was the creator and benefactor of all living creatures; unlike Yahweh, he was not a lone god.

al-Qaeda A terrorist network led by Osama bin Laden; it claimed responsibility for the September 11 attacks and other terrorist acts.

alternate residence system Lords lived in Edo every other year and left their wives and sons there as hostages.

amirs The term for the noble class in Mughal India.

Amon-Ra An Egyptian God, consisting of Amon, a primeval sky-god, and Ra, the sun-god.

Anabaptist The general name given to several Protestant groups that believed that only adults could make an informed decision about baptism and that therefore refused to have their children baptized.

Anatolia The native home of the ruler Osman and the region that many peoples in the Ottoman Empire hailed from.

Anyang The best excavated settlement from the Shang Dynasty.

apartheid The system of racial segregation and discrimination that was supported by the Afrikaner government.

Arianism A theological belief, originating with Arius, a priest of Alexandria, that denied that Christ was divine and co-eternal with God the Father.

aristocracy A type of Greek government in which only the top members of society exercise authority. The word translates as ?power in the hands of the best.?

Army Order No. 1 A radical order of the Petrograd Soviet that stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers.

Aryans The dominant people in North India after the decline of the Indus Valley civilization; they spoke an early form of Sanskrit.

astrolabe An instrument, developed by Muslim navigators in the twelfth century, that allowed mariners to plot their latitude by determining the altitude of the sun and other celestial bodies.

Atatürk The name bestowed on the Turkish president Mustafa Kemal; it means "father of the Turks."

audiencia Presided over by the viceroy, the twelve to fifteen judges who served as advisory council and as the highest judicial body.

audiencias The colonies' highest judicial bodies, which also served as councils to the viceroys.

Auxiliary Service Law A German law requiring all males between the ages of seventeen and sixty to work only at jobs considered critical to the war effort.

Axum A kingdom in northwestern Ethiopia that was a sizable trading state and the center of Christian culture.

ayllu A clan; it served as the fundamental social unit of Inca society.

Aztec A term coined by nineteenth-century historians to describe the Mexica people.

Baal An ancient Semitic fertility god represented as a golden calf.

Babylonian Captivity A period of time in 587 B.C.E. when the survivors of a Babylonian attack on the southern kingdom of Judah were sent into exile in Babylonia.

Babylonian Captivity Term applied to the seventy years (1307?1377) when the popes resided in Avignon, rather than in Rome. The phrase refers to the seventy years during which the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzer held the ancient Hebrew people in captivity.

badshah Imperial ruler; it was the title that Akbar took at the age of thirteen.

Balfour Declaration A 1917 statement by British foreign secretary Arthur Balfour that supported the idea of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

banners Units of the Chinese Manchu army; each was made up of a set of military companies, but included the families and slaves of the soldiers as well.

Bantu The people living in Africa south of the Congo River who speak a Bantu language.

barbarian A name given by the Romans to all peoples living outside the frontiers of the Roman Empire (except the Persians).

baroque The term applied to a late-seventeenth?early-eighteenth-century style of art that originated in Rome and is associated with the Catholic Reformation; it is characterized by emotional intensity, strong self-confidence, and a proselytizing spirit.

bazaar economy An economy with few salaried jobs and an abundance of tiny, unregulated businesses such as peddlers and pushcart operators.

Benthamite Followers of the radical philosopher Jeremy Bentham, they believed in the "greatest good for the greatest number."

Berbers North African peoples who were the first to develop saddles for use on the camel.

Berlin Conference Held in 1884 and 1885 in order to lay down some basic rules for imperialist competition in sub-Saharan Africa, it established the principle that European claims to African territory had to rest on ?effective occupation? in order to be recognized by other states.

Big Three Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill.

bimaristans Ottoman hospitals.

Black Death The bubonic plague that first struck Europe in 1347. It spread either in the bubonic form by flea bites or in the pneumonic form directly from the breath of one person to another. In less virulent forms, the disease reappeared many times until 1701.

Black Shirts A private army under Mussolini that destroyed socialist newspapers, union halls, and Socialist party headquarters, eventually pushing Socialists out of the city governments of northern Italy.

blitzkrieg "Lightning war? using planes, tanks, and trucks, the first example of which Hitler used to crush Poland in four weeks.

blood sports Amusements popular with the masses, including bullbaiting and cockfighting.

Bloody Sunday A massacre of peaceful protesters at Winter?s Square in St. Petersburg in 1905 that turned ordinary workers against the tsar and produced a wave of general indignation.

bodhisattvas Buddhas-to-be who stayed in the world after enlightenment to help others on the path to salvation.

body linen Another term for underwear, so called because it was made from expensive cloth.

Bolsheviks The "majority group?; this was Lenin?s camp of the Russian party of Marxian socialism.

Book of Documents A written work describing the Zhou conquest of the Shang.

Book of Songs The earliest collection of Chinese poetry; it provides glimpses of what life was like in the early Zhou Dynasty.

Book of the Dead An Egyptian book that preserved their ideas about death and the afterlife; it explains that after death, the soul leaves the body to become part of the divine.

Botany Bay A bay on the coast of eastern Australia in which numerous specimens of plant life were discovered. It later became home to a penal colony.

bourgeoisie A term for well-educated, prosperous, middle-class groups.

bourgeoisie The Marxian term for the middle class.

Boxers A Chinese secret society that blamed the country's ills on foreigners, especially missionaries.

brahman The unchanging, ultimate reality, according to the Upanishads.

Brahmans Aryan priests who supported the growth of royal power in return for royal confirmation of their own religious rights, power, and status.

Brezhnev Doctrine The doctrine created after the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, according to which the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.

bride wealth A Southeast Asian custom whereby at marriage, the groom paid the bride or her family a sum of money that remained under her control.

Bronze Age The period in which the production and use of bronze implements became basic to society; bronze made farming more efficient and revolutionized warfare.

Bushido Also called the "Way of the Warrior," this was the code of conduct by which samurai were expected to live.

cabinet system A political system in which heads of governmental administrative departments serve as a group to advise the head of state (prime minister). All these ministers are drawn from the majority party in the legislature (in Britain the House of Commons) and are responsible to it.

caliph The successor to Muhammad; the representative or deputy of God.

Canadian Pacific Railroad A transcontinental railroad supported by John Macdonald; it stretched across Canada and helped to unite the country.

capitulations A series of agreements that basically surrender the rights of one party. The Ottoman government signed these with European powers and gave them a stranglehold on Ottoman trade and commerce.

Carlsbad Decrees Issued in 1819, these decrees required the thirty-eight German member states to root out subversive ideas in their universities and newspapers.

caste system An Indian system that divided society into four hierarchical strata.

Chan A school of Buddhism (known in Japan as Zen) that rejected the authority of the sutras and claimed the superiority of mind-to-mind transmission of Buddhist truths.

chattel slavery Absolute legal ownership of another person, including the right to buy or sell that person.

checks and balances A term referring to the framework of the central government in the United States. The executive, legislative, and judicial branches would balance one another, and the federal government's power would be checked by the powers of individual states.

Cheka The re-established tsarist secret police, which hunted down and executed thousands of real or suspected foes, sowing fear and silencing opposition.

Choson Dynasty Also known as the Yi Dynasty, this Korean dynasty was founded by Yi Songgye in 1392 and lasted until 1910.

Civil Rights Act A 1964 act that prohibited discrimination in public services and on the job.

civil service examinations Tests at the prefecture, province, and capital levels that all Ming government officials had to master.

class consciousness Conflicting classes existed, in part, because many individuals came to believe they existed and developed an appropriate sense of class feeling.

classical liberalism The protection of individual liberties and political safeguards to guard against unchecked political power.

clients Free men and women who were dependent on the nobility?in return for their labor, they received small plots of land to work for themselves.

cloistered government A system in which an emperor retired to a Buddhist monastery, but continued to exercise power by controling his young son on the throne.

cocoa holdups A mass protest in the 1930s by Gold Coast producers of cocoa, who refused to sell their beans to British firms and instead them sold directly to European and American chocolate manufacturers.

Code of Manu The codification of Indian law from the second or third century C.E.; it lays down family, caste, and commercial law.

coenobitic monasticism Communal living in monasteries, encouraged by Saint Basil and the church because it provided an environment for training the aspirant in the virtues of charity, poverty, and freedom from self-deception.

coke A form of coal that was unlimited in supply and therefore easier and better to use.

collectivization The forcible consolidation of individual peasant farms into large, state-controlled enterprises.

college A university was made up of a collection of these privately endowed residences for the lodging of poor students.

common law A law that originated in, and was applied by, the king's court.

Common Market The European Economic Community created in 1957.

common rights The shared use of agriculture land; it was abolished with the enclosure movement.

commonwealth A republican form of government that was established in England after the abolition of kingship in 1649.

compass A tool developed in Song times to aid in navigation at sea; it consisted of a magnetic needle that would point north in a small, protective case.

concessions Large areas of Chinese treaty ports that were leased in perpetuity to foreign powers.

concubine A woman contracted to a man as a second wife; she took orders from the wife, but her children were considered equal in status.

concubine A woman contracted to a man as a second wife; as in Chinese culture, they often lived in a harem with the man's mother, wife, unmarried sisters, and royal children.

Confederacy The eleven Southern states that seceded from the United States and bonded together with a capital at Richmond, Virginia.

confederation The idea of a union of Canadian provinces.

Confucian classics The canonical scriptures?ancient Confucian texts recovered during the Han Dynasty.

Congress of Vienna The peace settlement that attempted to redraw Europe's political map after the defeat of Napoleonic France.

Constituent Assembly A freely elected assembly promised by the Bolsheviks, but permanently disbanded after one day on Lenin?s orders after the Bolsheviks won less than one-fourth of the elected delegates.

constitutionalism A form of government in which power is balanced between the authority and power of the government on the one hand, and the rights and liberties of the subject or citizen on the other hand.

Copernican theory The idea that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe; this had enormous scientific and religious implications.

Corn Laws The laws revised in 1815 that prohibited the importation of foreign grain unless the price at home rose to improbable levels.

corpus juris civilis The "body of civil law"; it is composed of the Code, Digest, and Institutes.

Cossacks Free groups and outlaw armies formed by Russian peasants during the time of Ivan the Terrible.

Court of Star Chamber A division of the English royal council, a court that used Roman legal procedures to curb real or potential threats from the nobility; the court was so called because there were stars painted on the ceiling of the chamber in which the court sat.

Covenant A formal agreement between Yahweh and the Hebrew people?if the Hebrews worshiped Yahweh as their only god, he would consider them his chosen people and protect them from their enemies.

cowrie shells Imported from the Maldive Islands, these served as the medium of exchange in West Africa.

Creoles People of Spanish descent born in America.

crossbow A weapon developed during the Warring States Period that allowed foot soldiers to shoot farther than a horseman carrying a light bow.

Crusades Holy wars sponsored by the papacy for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims in the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries.

Crystal Palace The location of the Great Exposition in 1851 in London; an architectural masterpiece made entirely of glass and iron, both of which were now cheap and abundant.

Culture System The Dutch policy that required Indonesian peasants to plant a fifth of their land in export crops, which were then turned over to the Dutch as taxes.

cuneiform The Sumerian form of writing (from the Latin term for ?wedge-shaped?), used to describe the strokes of the stylus.

curacas The headman of the Inca clan; he was responsible for conducting relations with outsiders.

daimyo Local warlords in Japan who seized what they needed and promoted irrigation and trade to raise revenues.

Dawes Plan The product of the reparations commission, accepted by Germany, France, and Britain, that reduced Germany?s yearly reparations, made payment dependent on German economic prosperity, and granted Germany large loans from the United States to promote recovery.

decolonization The reversal of Europe?s overseas expansion caused by the rising demand of Asian and African peoples for national self-determination, racial equality, and personal dignity.

Delian League A grand naval alliance, created by the Athenians and led by Aristides, aimed at liberating Ionia from Persian rule.

deme A local unit that served as the basic of Cleisthenes? political system.

democracy A type of Greek government in which all citizens, without regard to birth or wealth, administered the workings of government. It is translated as ?the power of the people.?

de-Stalinization The liberalization of the post-Stalin Soviet Union, led by reformer Nikita Khrushchev.

détente The progressive piecemeal relaxation of cold war tensions.

devshirme A process whereby the sultan's agents swept the provinces for Christian youths to become slaves.

dharma The moral law that Hindus observe in their quest for brahman.

dhimmis A term meaning "protected peoples"; it included Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians and represented the third class of Muslim society.

diaspora The dispersion of the Jews from Jerusalem between 132 and 135.

diwan An administrative device meaning "register"; it listed all Muslim soldiers.

Domesday Book A record of a survey ordered by William the Conqueror to determine how much wealth there was in his new kingdom, who held what land, and what land had been disputed among his vassals; it is an invaluable source of social and economic information.

Don Quixote A novel authored by Miguel de Cervantes, perhaps the greatest work of Spanish literature. It is a survey of the entire fabric of Spanish society that can be read on several levels: as a burlesque of chivalric romances, or as an exploration of conflicting views (idealistic vs. realistic) of life and of the world.

Dreyfus affair A divisive case in which a Jewish captain in the French army was falsely accused and convicted of treason.

dual revolution The term that historian Eric Hobsbawn used for the economic and political changes that tended to fuse, reinforcing each other.

Dutch East India Company A joint stock company chartered by the States General of the Netherlands to expand trade and promote relations between the Dutch government and its colonial ventures.

dynastic cycle The view of Chinese historians that dynasties rise and fall in a cyclical fashion, largely based on the collection of taxes and the morale of the government and the armies.

economic growth without economic development When large profits are made from cash crop production or from industrial manufacturing, yet few of these profits are put back into the construction of infrastructure or other efforts to raise the standard of living of the common people.

economic nationalism The idea that countries should protect and foster their own businesses by imposing high protective tariffs on imported goods as well as eliminating tariffs within the country.

Eightfold Path The code of conduct that the Buddhist follows to triumph over human weaknesses. emancipists All freed or emancipated persons.

emirs Arab governors who were appointed and given overall responsibility for good order, maintenance of the armed forces, and tax collecting.

empiricism A theory of inductive reasoning that demands that you go beyond speculation and begin to compare and analyze the subject.

Empress of India The title adopted by Queen Victoria in 1877 to reflect the British rule of India.

Enabling Act The act pushed through the Reichstag by the Nazis that gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for four years.

enclosure The enclosing of the individual shares of the pastures as a way of farming more effectively.

encomienda system The Spanish system whereby the Crown granted the conquerors the right to employ groups of Amerindians in a town or area as agricultural or mining laborers or as tribute payers; it was a legalized form of slavery.

encomienda system The system under which Spanish colonists were given the exclusive right to control public affairs in the Philippines and collect taxes in a specific locality.

Enlightenment A world-view that has played a large role in shaping the modern mind. The three central concepts were the use of reason, the scientific method, and progress.

eremitical A form of monasticism that began in Egypt in the third century in which individuals and small groups withdrew from cities and organized society to see God through prayer. The people who lived in caves and sought shelter in the desert and mountains were called hermits, from the Greek word eremos.

Esoteric Buddhism The religious belief that teachings containing the secrets of enlightenment have been secretly transmitted from the Buddha and can be accessed through initiation into the mandalas, mudras, and mantras.

estates The three orders into which France's inhabitants were divided: the Roman Catholic clergy, the nobility, and everyone else.

Ethiopia The first black African society that can be studied from written records; it was the site of the kingdom of Axum.

eunuchs Castrated males who played an important role as palace servants.

European Union (EU) The new name given to the European Community in 1993.

evolution The idea, applied by thinkers in many fields, that stresses gradual change and continuous adjustment.

examination system The highly competitive civil service examinations through which the scholar-official class was certified.

exclusionists The officers and jailers who tried to establish a colonial gentry and impose rigid class distinctions from England.

existentialism A highly diverse and even contradictory system of thought that was loosely united in a courageous search for moral values in a world of terror and uncertainty.

export economies The production and exportation of high-value commodities that could be sold on the world market.

extraterritoriality A clause in the Treaty of Nanjing that made British subjects in China answerable only to British law.

Factory Act of 1833 An act that limited the factory workday for children between nine and thirteen years of age to eight hours and that of adolescents between fourteen and eighteen years of age to twelve hours.

factory-fort A term first used by the British for their trading post at Surat, it was later applied to all European walled settlements in India.

factory-forts Fortified trading posts that were established on the Gold Coast.

family monarch A goal of Napoleon's, whereby the power of the husband and father over his wife and children was as absolute as Napoleon's was over his subjects.

fascism A movement characterized by extreme, often expansionist nationalism, an antisocialism aimed at destroying working-class movements, alliances with powerful capitalists and landowners, a dynamic and violent leader, and glorification of war and the military.

feminization of poverty The issue of those living in extreme poverty being disproportionately women.

filial piety Obedience of children toward their parents; it was extolled by Confucius.

First Triumvirate A political alliance between Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey in which they agreed to advance one another?s interests.

five good emperors The name for the five emperors who ruled the empire wisely, fairly, and humanely. They created a period of peace and prosperity.

Five Pillars of Islam The basic tenets of the Islamic faith; they include reciting a profession of faith in God and in Muhammad as God?s prophet; prayer five times daily; fasting and prayer during the month of Ramadan; a pilgrimage to Mecca once in one's lifetime; and contribution of alms to the poor.

five-year plan Launched by Stalin and termed ?revolution from above,? its ultimate goal was to generate new attitudes, new loyalties, and a new socialist humanity.

foot binding An elite practice of binding the feet of girls with long strips of cloth to keep them from growing and to make the foot narrow and arched.

Four Noble Truths The Buddha's message that pain and suffering are inescapable parts of life; suffering and anxiety are caused by human desires and attachments; people can understand and triumph over these weaknesses; and the triumph is made possible by following a simple code of conduct.

French classicism The style of French art, architecture, and literature (ca. 1600?1750) based on admiration and imitation of Greek and Roman models, but with greater exuberance and complexity.

French Indochina The French domination and rule of the countries of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.

Fronde A series of violent uprisings during the time of Louis XIV triggered by oppressive taxation of the common people, ambitions of the nobles, and efforts of the Parlement of Paris to check the authority of the crown; the last attempt of the French nobility to resist the king by arms.

Führer "Leader-dictator? with unlimited, arbitrary power; this name was bestowed upon Adolf Hitler.

Funan The Chinese name for the first state to appear in Southeast Asia; it had its capital in southern Vietnam.

functionalism The principle that buildings, like industrial products, should serve the purpose for which they were made as well as possible.

General Assembly The second main body of the United Nations; each "peace-loving" state is eligible to join and participate in it.

General History of the Indies A 1547 detailed eyewitness account of plants, animals, and peoples that was widely read.

germ theory The idea, contrary to miasmatic theory, that disease was spread through filth and not caused by it.

Ghana The name of a great African kingdom inhabited by the Soninke people.

ghana The name used by the Soninke people for their ruler.

Girondists A group contesting control of the National Convention in France; it was named after a department in southwestern France.

gladiators Criminals and convicts who were sentenced to be slaughtered in the arena as public entertainment.

glasnost "Openness,? part of Gorbachev?s campaign to ?tell it like it is,? marked a break from the past; long-banned writers sold millions of copies of their works, and denunciations of Stalin and his terror were standard public discourse.

global warming The belief among the majority of the world's scientists that hydrocarbons produced through the burning of fossil fuels have caused a greenhouse effect and increased global temperatures over time.

Gothic The term for the architectural and artistic style that prevailed in Europe from the mid-twelfth to the sixteenth century.

Grand Canal A canal, built during the Sui Dynasty, that connected the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers.

Grand National Consolidated Trades Union Organized by Owen in 1834, this was one of the largest and most visionary early national unions.

grasslands Also called steppe, this arid land is easily cropped by horses, but is too dry for crop agriculture.

Great Fear During the French Revolution, the fear of vagabonds and outlaws that seized the countryside and fanned the flames of rebellion.

Great Khan An honorary name given to the Mongol ruler Chinggis in 1206.

Great Leap Forward Mao Zedong's acceleration of development in which industrial growth was to be based on small-scale backyard workshops run by peasants living in gigantic self-contained communes.

Great Mutiny/Great Revolt The terms used by the British and Indians to describe the last armed resistance to British rule in India, which occurred in 1857.

Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution A movement launched by Mao Zedong that attempted to purge the party of time-serving bureaucrats and recapture the revolutionary fervor of his guerrilla struggle.

Great Schism The period during which the Church had two popes, one in Rome and one in Avignon; it caused the ultimate division between the Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Roman) churches.

Great Silk Road The name of the major route for the silk trade.

Great Wall A rammed-earth fortification built along the northern border of China during the reign of the First Emperor.

great white walls Discriminatory laws that appeared in the 1880s in the United States and Australia and were designed to keep Asians out.

Great Zimbabwe A ruined African city discovered by a German explorer in 1871; it is considered the most powerful monument south of the Nile Valley and Ethiopian highlands.

Green Revolution The increase in food production stemming from the introduction of high-yielding wheats, hybrid seeds, and other advancements.

gunboat diplomacy The signing of treaties and agreements under threat of military violence, such as the opening of Japan to trade after Commodore Perry's demands.

haciendas Large landed estates owned by the Spanish throughout the eighteenth century.

hadith Collections of the sayings of or anecdotes about Muhammad.

Hanseatic League A mercantile association of towns that allowed for mutual protection and security.

Hapiru A name meaning homeless, independent nomads; it represents a group of people that was partially made up of Hebrews.

Harappan The first Indian civilization; it is also known as the Indus Valley civilization.

harem The separate quarters of a Muslim house or palace where women lived.

hermandades Popular groups in Spanish towns that were given royal authority to serve as local police forces and as judicial tribunals with the goal of reducing aristocratic violence.

HIV/AIDS This virus and disease had infected more than 40 million persons worldwide in 2004 and are now the world's fourth leading cause of death.

Holocaust The attempted extermination of all European Jews by the Nazi state.

Holy Alliance An alliance formed by Austria, Russia, and Prussia in September of 1815 that became a symbol of the repression of liberal and revolutionary movements all over Europe.

Holy Office An official Roman Catholic agency founded in 1542 to combat international doctrinal heresy and to promote sound doctrine on faith and morals.

hoplites The heavily armed infantry that were the backbone of the Greek army.

Huitzilopochtli The chief among the Aztecs' many gods; it symbolized the sun blazing at high noon.

humanism A term first used by Florentine rhetorician Leonard Bruni as a general word for ?the new learning?; the critical study of Latin and Greek literature, with the goal of realizing human potential.

Hyksos Called ?Rulers of the Uplands? by the Egyptians, these people began to settle in the Nile Delta shortly after 1800 B.C.E.

iconoclastic controversy The conflict that resulted from the destruction of Christian images in Byzantine churches in 730.

id Freudian term for the primitive, irrational unconscious.

Ilkhan The name for the Mongol rulers of Persia.

imam The leader in community prayer.

Incas The Peruvian empire that was at its peak from 1438 until 1532.

indentured laborers Emigrants, often from Asia, who were recruited under contract to work.

Indian A term often used for the indigenous peoples of the Americas; it stems from the mistaken belief of European explorers that they were near the East Indies.

Indian Civil Service Western-style examinations that Indians were eligible to take, but that were offered only in England.

Indian National Congress Formed in 1885, this group of Indians demanded increasing equality and self-government.

individualism A basic feature of the Italian Renaissance stressing personality, uniqueness, genius, and self-consciousness.

Indo-European Refers to a large family of languages that includes English, most of the languages of modern Europe, Greek, Latin, Persian, and Sanskrit, the sacred tongue of ancient India.

indulgence A papal statement granting remission of a priest-imposed penalty for sin (no one knew what penalty God would impose after death).

Industrial Revolution A term coined in the 1830s to describe the burst of major inventions and technical changes in certain industries.

industrialization strategy The belief that the masses were impoverished because they were living in a primitive agricultural economy and that only modern factory industry would raise standards of living.

infidel An unbeliever; the Muslim term for a Christian, no matter how assimilated.

iron law of wages The rule that because of the pressure of population growth, wages would always sink to subsistence level, meaning that wages would be just high enough to keep workers from starving.

irrigation The solution to the problem of arid climates and scant water supplies; a system of watering land and draining to prevent the buildup of salt in the soil.

ius civile (civil law) A law that consisted of statutes, customs, and forms of procedure.

ius naturale (natural law) A universal law that could be applied to all societies.

Izanagi and Izanami According to the Japanese creation myth, this divine brother and sister came to earth and created the Japanese islands and other gods.

Jacobins In Revolutionary France, a political club whose members were a radical republican group.

Jacquerie A massive uprising by French peasants in 1358 protesting heavy taxation.

janissaries Turkish for "recruits"; they formed the elite army corps.

janissary corps The Ottoman sultan's slave army; they soon became a corrupt and privileged hereditary caste.

jati The numerous Indian castes.

Java War The 1825?1830 war between the Dutch government and the Javanese, fought over the extension of Dutch control of the island.

Jesuits Members of the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola and approved by the papacy in 1540, whose goal was the spread of the Roman Catholic faith through humanistic schools and missionary activity.

jihad "Holy war," a Muslim term that some scholars interpret as the individual struggle against sin and others interpret as having a social and communal implication.

jihads Religious wars waged by Muslim scholars and religious leaders against both animist rulers and Islamic states that they deemed corrupt.

jitza A tax on non-Muslims.

jurors In William the Conqueror's reign, a priest and six local people who swore an oath to answer truthfully all questions about their wealth.

Ka?ba A Muslim temple containing a black stone thought to be God's dwelling place.

Kanuni In Turkish history, this name, meaning "Lawgiver," was given to Suleiman because of his profound influence on the civil law.

karma The tally of good and bad deeds that determines the status of an individual's next life.

khanates The four units into which Chinggis divided the Mongol Empire.

kibbutz A Jewish collective farm on which each member shared equally in the work, rewards, and defense of the farm.

Kilwa The most powerful city of the coast of Africa by the late thirteenth century.

koine A common dialect of the Greek language that influenced the speech of peninsular Greece.

kowtow The ritual of kneeling on both knees and bowing one's head to the ground out of respect for the Chinese ruler.

kulaks Better-off peasants who were stripped of land and livestock under Stalin. They generally were not permitted to join the collective farms, and many of them starved or were deported to forced-labor camps for ?re-education.?

Kulturkampf Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church, also known as the "struggle for civilization."

Kumbi The city where the king of Ghana held his court.

labor aristocracy Highly skilled workers who made up about 15 percent of the working classes at the turn of the twentieth century.

lacquer Made from the sap of the lac tree, it was often used to make cups and dishes.

laissez faire Economic liberalism that believes in unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.

Lateran Agreement A 1929 agreement that recognized the Vatican as a tiny independent state, with Mussolini agreeing to give the church heavy financial support. In turn, the pope expressed his satisfaction and urged Italians to support Mussolini?s government.

latifundia Huge Roman estates created by buying up several small farms.

law code A proclamation issued by the Babylonian king Hammurabi ?to establish law and justice in the language of the land, thereby prompting the welfare of the people.? It inflicted harsh punishments, but despite its severity, it is pervaded with a spirit of justice and a sense of responsibility.

law of inertia A law formulated by Galileo that stated that rest was not the natural state of an object. Rather, an object continues in motion forever unless it is stopped by some external force.

Law of the Sea A proposed law based on the principle that the world's oceans are "a common heritage of mankind"; it would have allowed only a United Nations?sponsored authority to regulate and tax use of the sea.

law of universal gravitation A law stating that every body in the universe attracts every other body in the universe in a precise mathematical relationship, with the force of attraction being proportional to the quantity of matter of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

lay investiture The selection and appointment of church officials by secular authorities.

League of Nations A permanent international organization established during the peace conference in Paris in January 1919; it was designed to protect member states from aggression and avert future wars.

Legalists Political theorists who emphasized the need for rigorous laws and laid the basis for China's later bureaucratic government.

Leopold II The king of Belgium who colonized the Congo and sent expeditions into Central Africa.

loess The dominant soil in China; it is fertile and easy to work.

logical empiricism A revolt against established certainties in philosophy that rejected most of the concerns of traditional philosophy, from the existence of God to the meaning of happiness, as nonsense and hot air.

logographic A language in which each word is represented by a single symbol, such as the Chinese script.

Long March The 6,000-mile retreat of the Communist army to a remote region on the northwestern border of China, during which tens of thousands lost their lives.

lopsided world A world of rich lands and poor lands and global inequality.

Lucknow Pact A 1916 alliance between Hindus leading the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League.

Luddites Handicraft workers who attacked whole factories in northern England in 1812 and after, smashing the new machines that they believed were putting them out of work.

Lusitania The name of the British passenger liner sunk by a German submarine that claimed 1,000 lives.

maceualtin The vast majority of the Aztec population; these were the ordinary citizens or members of the working class.

madrasa A school for the study of Muslim law and religious science.

Magi A priestly class developed among the Medes to officiate at sacrifices, chant prayers to the gods, and tend the sacred flame.

Magi The term for Zoroastrian priests.

magnetic compass A Chinese invention that allowed sailors to determine their position and direction at sea.

Mahayana A form of Buddhism that is known for being more inclusive; also called "Great Vehicle."

Majlis The national assembly established by the despotic shah of Iran in 1906.

Mandate of Heaven The theory that Heaven gives the king a mandate to rule only as long as he rules in the interests of the people.

manifest destiny The belief that God had foreordained Americans to cover the entire continent; the phrase was used as a catchword for and justification of expansion.

manor The estate that most European peasants, free or unfree, lived on.

manorial rights The privileges of lordship that allowed lords to tax the peasantry for their own profit.

manumission The freeing of individual slaves by their masters.

Marshall Plan The plan of economic aid to Europe to help it rebuild, which Stalin refused for all of eastern Europe.

May Fourth Movement A nationalist movement against foreign imperialists; it began as a student protest against the decision of the Versailles Peace Conference to leave the Shandong Peninsula in the hands of Japan.

medical revolution A period from the late 1800s to after World War II during which scientists discovered vaccines for many of the most deadly diseases.

megacities Cities with a population of five million people or more.

Meiji Oligarchs The leaders who organized the coup that ousted the Tokugawa Shogunate and returned the emperor to power in Japan.

Meiji Restoration The 1867 ousting of the Tokugawa Shogunate that marked a return to direct rule by the Japanese emperor.

Mein KampfA book written by Adolf Hitler in which he outlines his theories and program for a ?national socialist revolution.?

mercantilism A prevailing economic theory of European nations in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; it rested on the premise that a nation?s power and wealth were determined by its supply of precious metals, which were to be acquired by increasing exports (paid for with gold) and reducing imports to achieve domestic self-sufficiency. Mercantilism remained the dominant theory until the Industrial Revelation and articulation of the theory of laissez faire.

mercantilism A system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state.

merchant guilds Communal enterprises, people commonly linked by similar occupations as united enterprise provided them with greater security and less risk of losses than did individual action.

Mesoamerica The term used by scholars to designate the area of present-day Mexico and Central America.

Messiah The savior of Israel.

Mexica Another term for Aztec; it is a pre-Columbian term designating the dominant ethnic people of the island capital of Tenochtitlán-Tlalelolco.

miasmatic theory The belief that people contract disease by breathing bad odors and decay and putrefying excrement.

middle powers Those countries not considered part of either the First World or the Developing World; they became increasingly assertive after the cold war.

migration chain The movement of peoples in which one strong individual would blaze the way and others would follow.

military governors Japanese officials who were appointed to oversee the military and enforce the law in the provinces.

military land stewards Japanese officials who were in charge of seeing to the hard-to-tax estates' proper operation.

Mines Act of 1842 The act that prohibited underground work for all women as well as for boys under ten.

Ming Dynasty The Chinese dynasty in power from 1368 to 1644; it marked a period of agricultural reconstruction, foreign expeditions, commercial expansion, and a vibrant urban culture.

mita A draft rotary system that determined when men of a particular hamlet performed public works.

mitima A process of colonization by which people living in newly conquered territories were transferred to other parts of the Inca Empire and replaced with workers who had lived longer under Inca rule and whose independent spirit had been broken.

mixed economy An economy that is part socialist and part capitalist.

modernization The changes that enable a country to compete effectively with the leading countries at a given time.

modernization A theory, popular in the 1960s, that assumed that all countries were following the path already taken by the industrialized nations and that the elites' task was to speed the trip.

modernizers Those native to a colony who believed that Western impact had affected their society in some positive ways and who wanted to reform their country in a similar manner.

Mogadishu A Muslim port city founded between the eighth and tenth centuries; today it is the capital of Somalia.

moksha Release from the wheel of life.

monarchy Derived from the Greek for ?the rule of one man,? it was a type of Greek government in which a king represented the community.

monotheism The belief in one god; when applied to Egypt, it means that only Aton among the traditional Egyptian deities was god.

mound builders Societies of peoples in North America who built massive earthworks, mounds of earth and stone.

movable type A system of printing in which one piece of type was used for each unique character.

Mozarabs Assimilated Christians who adopted some Arabic customs.

Mughal A term used to refer to the Muslim empire of India, although its founders were primarily Turks, Afghans, and Persians.

Muhammad Ali The Turkish general who established a modernized and virtually independent Egyptian state.

multinational corporations Business firms that operate in a number of different countries and tend to adopt a global rather than a national perspective.

Muslim LeagueThe rival to the Indian Congress, it argued for separate homelands for Muslims and Indians.

Nahuatl The language of both the Toltecs and the Aztecs.

Nara Japan's first true city; it was established in 710 north of modern Osaka.

National Liberation Front The name of the victorious anticolonial movement in Algeria.

national workshops A system established to offer Parisians constant work at fair wages.

nationalism Patriotic dedication to a national state and mission; it was a decisive element in the French republic's victory.

Native Land Act A 1913 South African law that limited black ownership of land to native reserves encompassing only one-seventh of the country.

Nazism A movement born of extreme nationalism and racism and dominated by Adolf Hitler for as long as it lasted.

neocolonialism A form of economic domination in which foreign investors acquired control over railroads, resources, banking, and real estate.

neocolonialism A system designed to perpetuate Western economic domination and undermine the promise of political independence.

Neo-Confucianism The revival of Confucian thinking that began in the eleventh century.

Neolithic period The period between 7000 and 3000 B.C.E. that serves as the dividing line between anthropology and history. The term itself refers to the new stone tools that came into use at this time.

neo-Malthusian A belief of social scientists, based on the late-eighteenth-century works of Thomas Malthus, that population tends to grow faster than the food supply.

neutron The most important of the subatomic particles because its capacity to pass through other atoms allowed for intense experimental bombardment of matter, leading to chain reactions of unbelievable force.

New Culture Movement An intellectual revolution founded by young Western-oriented intellectuals; it advocated new and anti-Confucian virtues.

New Deal Franklin Delano Roosevelt?s plan to reform capitalism through forceful government intervention in the economy.

New Economic Policy (NEP) Lenin?s policy of re-establishing limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry in the face of economic disintegration.

New Order Hitler's program, based on the guiding principle of racial imperialism, that gave preferential treatment to the Nordic peoples. The French, an ?inferior? Latin people, occupied a middle position. Slavs in the conquered territories to the east were treated with harsh hatred as ?subhumans.?

New South Wales The name given to Australia by James Cook, the English explorer.

Nguyen Dynasty The Vietnamese dynasty that came to power in 1802 and put an end to thirty years of peasant rebellion and civil war.

nirvana A state of blissful nothingness and freedom from reincarnation.

nobles The top level of Sumerian society; it consisted of the king and his family, the chief priests, and high palace officials.

nomads Homeless independent people who lead roaming lives, always in search of pasturage for their flocks.

nomads Wandering peoples who have no fixed home and move from place to place in search of food, water, and land.

North German Confederation A new government structure created by Bismarck after the war; it put the federal government in control of the army and military affairs, but created a legislature with two houses that shared equally in the making of laws.

oba The name for the king of Benin.

October Manifesto The result of a great general strike in October 1905, it granted full civil rights and promised a popularly elected duma (parliament) with real legislative power.

oligarchy ?The rule of a few,? a type of Greek government in which a small group of wealthy citizens, not necessarily of aristocratic birth, ruled.

Olmec The oldest of the early advanced Amerindian civilizations.

OPEC An Arab-led organization of countries that export oil that helps to set policies and prices on its trade.

open-field system A system of village farming developed by peasants where the land was divided into several large fields, which were in turn cut into strips.

Opium War A war between the British and the Chinese over limitations on trade and the importation of opium into China.

organic chemistry The study of the compounds of carbon.

Ottomans Members of the Turkish empire that lasted from 1453 to 1918.

outcastes People not belonging to a caste; they were often scorned and sometimes deemed "untouchable."

Palestine Liberation Organization Created in 1964, a loose union of Palestinian refugee groups opposed to Israel and working toward Palestinian home rule.

palm oil A West African tropical product, often used to make soap, that the British encouraged cultivation of as an alternative to the slave trade.

Pan-Africanists People, such as Marcus Garvey, who promoted solidarity among all blacks and the eventual self-governing union of all African peoples.

paper money The Chinese government produced the world's first government-issued money on paper, rather than the coins that were used previously.

Paris Accord A general peace treaty that brought an end to World War II and the cold war that followed; it called for a scaling down of all armed forces and the acceptance of all existing borders as legal and valid.

pasteurization The process developed by Louis Pasteur that suppressed the activity of living organisms in a beverage by heating it.

paterfamilias A term that means far more than merely ?father,? it indicates the oldest dominant male of the family, one who holds nearly absolute power over the lives of his family as long as he lives

. patricians The aristocracy, wealthy landowners who held political power.

pax Romana A period during the first and second centuries C.E. of security, order, harmony, flourishing culture, and expanding economy.

Peace of Utrecht A series of treaties in 1713 that ended the War of the Spanish Succession, ended French expansion in Europe, and marked the rise of the British Empire.

Peace of Westphalia The name of a series of treaties that concluded the Thirty Years' War in 1648.

peninsulares A term for natives of Spain or Portugal.

penitentials Manuals for the examination of conscience.

peons Indians who were permanently in debt to the landowners.

perestroika The economic ?restructuring? reform implemented by Gorbachev that permitted an easing of government price controls on some goods, more independence for state enterprises, and the setting up of profit-seeking private cooperatives to provide personal services for consumers.

Permanent Mandates Commission A commission created by the League of Nations to oversee the developed nations' fulfillment of their international responsibility.

Petrine Doctrine The statement used by popes, bishops of Rome, based on Jesus? words, to substantiate their claim of being the successors of Saint Peter and heirs to his authority as chief of the apostles.

Petrograd Soviet A counter-government that was a huge, fluctuating mass meeting of two to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals.

pharaoh The leader of religious and political life in the Old Kingdom, he commanded the wealth, resources, and people of Egypt.

philosophes Intellectuals in France who proclaimed that they were bringing the light of knowledge to their ignorant fellow creatures in the Age of Enlightenment.

planned economy Robespierre and the government set maximum prices for products, rather than relying on supply and demand, so as to create a more egalitarian social structure.

plebeians The common people of Rome, who had few of the patricians? advantages.

polis Generally translated as ?city-state,? it is the basic political and institutional unit of Greece.

polytheism The worship of several gods; this was the tradition of Egyptian religion.

Popular Front A New Deal?inspired party in France led by Leon Blum that encouraged the union movement and launched a far-reaching program of social reform, complete with paid vacations and a forty-hour workweek.

portolans Fifteenth-century Portuguese written descriptions of maritime routes showing bays, coves, capes, ports, and the distance between these places.

praetor A new office created in 366 B.C.E.; these people would act in place of consuls when the consuls were away, although they primarily dealt with the administration of justice.

predestination Calvin?s teaching that by God?s decree, some persons are guided to salvation, and others to damnation; that God has called us not according to our works but according to His purpose and grace.

princeps civitatis A title meaning First Citizen, it later came to mean ?prince? in the sense of a sovereign ruler.

progress One of the central concepts of the Enlightenment; intellectuals in France proclaimed that they were bringing the light of knowledge to their ignorant fellow creatures in the Age of Enlightenment.

proletarianization The transformation of large number of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners.

proletariat The Marxian term for the modern working class.

protected people The Muslim classification used for Hindus, Christians, and Jews; they were allowed to follow their religions, but had to pay a special tax.

Protestant Originally meaning "Lutheran," this term came to be generally term applied to all non-Catholic Christians.

provinces The rural colonies of the Roman civilization; they were often allowed to keep many of their local beliefs.

Pure Land A school of Buddhism that taught that by paying homage to the Buddha Amitabha and his chief helper, one could achieve rebirth in Amitabha's paradise.

Puritans Members of a eighteenth-century reform movement within the Church of England that advocated ?purifying? it of Roman Catholic elements, such as bishops, elaborate ceremonial, and the wedding ring.

pyramid The burial place of a pharaoh; it was a massive tomb that contained all things needed for the afterlife. It also symbolized the king?s power and his connection with the sun-god.

qadis Muslim judges who carried out the judicial functions of the state.

Qing Dynasty The multiethnic Chinese dynasty founded by the Manchus and lasting from 1644 to 1911.

Qizilbash Nomadic tribesman, often from Anatolia, who were loyal to and supportive of the early Safavid state.

Quechua First deemed the official language of the Incas under Pachacuti, it is still spoken by most Peruvians today.

quinine An agent that proved effective in controlling attacks of malaria, which had previously decimated Europeans in the tropics.

quinto One-fifth of all precious metals mined in the Americas that the Crown claimed as its own.

Qur?an The sacred book of Islam.

railroads raja The chief of an Aryan tribe; he led his followers in battle and ruled them in peacetime.

reconquista A fourteenth-century term used to describe the Christian crusade to wrest Spain back from the Muslims; clerics believed it was a sacred and patriotic mission.

Records of the Grand Historian A comprehensive history of China written by Sima Qian.

Red Guards Radical cadres formed by young people who would attack anyone identified as a enemy of either the Communist party or Chairman Mao.

Red Shirts The guerrilla army of Giuseppe Garibaldi, who invaded Sicily in 1860 in an attempt to ?liberate? it and won the hearts of the Sicilian peasantry.

regent A temporary ruler appointed to rule in the place of a child emperor.

Reichstag The popularly elected lower house of government of the new German Empire after 1871.

Reign of Terror The period from 1793 to 1794, during which Robespierre used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front of France. Some 40,000 French men and women were killed during this period.

ren The ultimate Confucian virtue; it is translated as perfect goodness, benevolence, humanity, human-heartedness, and nobility.

Renaissance A French word, translated from the Italian rinascita, first used by art historian and critic Giorgio Vasari (1511?1574), meaning rebirth of the culture of classical antiquity; English-speaking students adopted the French term.

representative government Not democracy, but the process of voting for representatives (those who owned property) as a voice for the people.

revisionism An effort by various socialists to update Marxian doctrines to reflect the realities of the time.

Rigveda The earliest collection of hymns, ritual texts, and philosophical treatises; it is the central source of information on early Aryans.

Rites Controversy A dispute over ritual between the Jesuits and other Roman Catholic religious orders. The Jesuits supported the celebration of Mass and other ceremonies in Chinese, while other missionaries felt that the Jesuits had sold out the essentials of the Christian faith.

Royal Road The main highway created by the Persians; it spanned 1,677 miles from Greece to Iran.

Russo-Japanese War The 1904 war between Russia and Japan, fought over imperial influence and territory in China, particularly in Manchuria.

Safavid The dynasty that encompassed all of Persia and other regions; its state religion was Shi'ism.

Saint Bartholomew?s Day massacre A savage 1572 Catholic attack on Calvinists in Paris that led to the War of the Three Henrys.

Salic Law A law code issued by the Salian Franks that provides us with the earliest description of Germanic customs.

salons Elegant private drawing rooms where talented and rich Parisian women held regular social gatherings during the Enlightenment to discuss literature, science, and philosophy.

samsara The transmigration of souls by a continual process of rebirth.

samurai Skilled Japanese workers who performed loyal service to their lords in return for land or income.

sans-culottes The name for the petty traders and laboring poor of Paris, so called because the men wore trousers instead of the knee breeches of the aristocracy and middle class.

Sanskrit India's classical literary language.

sati A practice whereby a high-caste Hindu woman would throw herself on her husband's funeral pyre.

Satyagraha Loosely translated as "Soul Force," Gandhi believed this was the means of striving for truth and social justice through love, suffering, and conversion of the oppressor.

schism A division, or split, in church leadership; during the period 1377?1418, there were two, then three, popes.

Schleswig and Holstein Provinces that were inhabited primarily by Germans, but ruled by the king of Denmark; they revolted at the prospect of being integrated into the German state by Frederick VII.

Scholastics Medieval professors who developed a method of thinking, reasoning, and writing in which questions were raised and authorities cited on both sides of a question.

Sea Peoples Invaders who destroyed the Egyptian empires in the late thirteenth century; they are otherwise unidentifiable because they went their own ways after their attacks on Egypt.

second revolution A phase during which the fall of the French monarchy marked a rapid radicalization of the Revolution.

Second Treatise of Civil Government A 1690 work by the English political philosopher John Locke that was a justification of the Glorious Revolution of 1688?1689 and of the people?s right of revolution, a defense of the rights of property, and a supporter of a system of checks and balances.

secularism An attitude that tends to find the ultimate explanation of everything and the final end of human beings in what reason and the senses can discover, rather than in any spiritual or transcendental belief.

Security Council The United Nations body that has the authority to examine international conflicts, impose economic and political penalties on an aggressor, and even use force, if necessary, to restore international peace and security.

self-help housing A euphemism for shantytowns.

senate Originating under the Etruscans, a council of noble elders who advised the king.

separate spheres A rigid gender division of labor, with the wife as mother and homemaker and the husband as wage earner.

separatism Radical demands for ethnic autonomy or political independence.

Sephardic Jews A group of Jews that settled along the trade routes of western Europe and that during the eleventh century played a major role in the international trade between the Muslim Middle East and the West.

sepoys The army of native Indian troops who were trained as infantrymen.

shah Meaning "king," it was the term first used by Ismail.

shantytowns Areas of makeshift squatter settlements created by a group of the urban poor.

shari?a Muslim law, which covers social, criminal, political, commercial, and ritualistic matters.

sharif A term for the chief magistrate of Mecca.

shi The lower ranks of Chinese aristocracy; these men could serve in either military or civil capacities.

Shi?ites Arabic term meaning "supporters of Ali"; these make up one of the two main sects of Islam.

Shinto The "Way of the Gods"; it was the native religion espoused by the Yamato rulers.

shogun A general-in-chief; this person ruled over the Japanese military.

shore trading A process for trading goods in which European ships sent boats ashore or invited African dealers to bring traders and slaves out to the ships.

Silk Road The trade routes across Central Asia through which Chinese silk and other items were traded.

An Islamic business device that invokes prompt payment in return for a distant future delivery.

Sino-Japanese War A brief 1894 war between Japan and China, fought over Japanese efforts to separate Korea from Chinese influence.

skeptics Those who believed that nothing can ever be known beyond all doubt and that humanity?s best hope was open-minded toleration.

slave A person who is bound in servitude and often traded as property or as a commodity.

Social Darwinists A group of thinkers who saw the human race as driven forward to ever-greater specialization and progress by the unending economic struggle, which would determine ?the survival of the fittest.?

socialism A backlash against the emergence of individualism and fragmentation of society, it was a move toward cooperation and a sense of community; the key ideas were planning, greater economic equality, and state regulation of property.

Sokoto caliphate Founded in 1809 by Usuman dan Fodio, this African state was based on Islamic history and law.

Solidarity Led by Lech Walesa, this group of Polish workers organized a free and democratic trade union that quickly became the union of a nation.

sorting A collection or batch of British goods that would be traded for a slave or for a quantity of gold, ivory, or dyewood.

sovereign An independent, autonomous state run by its citizens, free of any outside power or restraint.

sovereignty The idea that the people alone have the authority to make laws limiting an individual's freedom of action.

spinning jenny A machine, invented by James Hargreaves, that enabled workers to spin cotton.

Srivijaya A maritime empire that held the Strait of Malacca and the waters around Sumatra, Borneo, and Java.

stateless societies African societies bound together by ethnic or blood ties rather than political states.

States General A term used by the national assembly of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, where the wealthy merchant class held real power; because many issues had to be referred back to the provinces, the United Provinces was a confederation, or weak union of strong states.

steam engine A breakthrough invention by Thomas Savery in 1698 and Thomas Newcomen in 1705 in which coal was burned to produce steam, which was then used to operate a pump.

steppe Another name for the arid grasslands that are common in Central Asia.

Stoicism The most popular of Hellenistic philosophies; it considers nature an expression of divine will, and holds that people can be happy only when living in accordance with nature.

stream-of-consciousness technique A literary technique, used by James Joyce and others, using interior monologue to explore the human psyche.

Struggle of the Orders A great social conflict that developed between patricians and plebeians; the plebeians wanted real political representation and safeguards against patrician domination.

Sturm und Drang Literally "Storm and Stress," the German early Romantics of the 1770s and 1780s who lived lives of tremendous emotional intensity?suicides, duels, madness, and strange illnesses were common.

Sudan The African region surrounded by the Sahara, the Gulf of Guinea, the Atlantic Ocean, and the mountains of Ethiopia.

sulahkul A principle of universal tolerance that stated that the emperor was responsible for all his people, regardless of their religion.

sultan An Arabic word originally used by the Seljuk Turks to mean authority or dominion; it was used by the Ottomans to connote political and military supremacy.

Sultan-i-Rum The name that the Ottoman sultans took as their title; it means "Sultan of Rome."

Sunnis Members of one of the two main sects of Islam, these Muslims adhere to the practices and beliefs of the umma, based on the precedents of the Prophet.

superego Freudian term for the ingrained moral values, which specify what a person should do.

sutras The written teachings of the Buddha, first transcribed in the second or first century B.C.E.

Swahili The East African coastal culture, named after a Bantu language whose vocabulary and poetic forms exhibit strong Arabic influences.

Swahili Meaning "People of the Coast," this is the term used for the people living along the East African coast and on nearby islands.

Sykes-Picot Agreement The 1916 secret agreement between Britain and France that divided up the Arab lands of Lebanon, Syria, southern Turkey, Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq.

syncretic faith A faith that absorbed and adopted many of the religious ideas of the western Mediterranean world.

tabula rasa Literally, a "blank tablet." It is incorporated into Locke?s belief that all ideas are derived from experience, and that the human mind at birth is like a blank tablet on which the environment writes the individual?s understanding and beliefs.

Taghaz A desolate settlement in the western Sahara; it was the site of the main salt-mining center.

Taiping Rebellion An internal rebellion in China over the religious followers of Hong Xiuquan that ended with 20 million deaths.

Talmud A later religious work, composed during the period between C.E. 70 and C.E. 636, that records civil and ceremonial law and Jewish legend.

tanka The dominant form of Japanese poetry; it had thirty-one syllables in five lines of 5-7-5-7-7.

Tanzimat Radical reforms to the Ottoman Empire that were designed to remake the empire on a western European model.

taotie A common image in Chinese bronzes; it is a stylized animal face.

tariff protection A government?s way of supporting and aiding its own economy by laying high tariffs on the cheaper goods imported from another country.

tax-farming The Mongol process of allowing Central Asian Muslim merchants to bid against each other for licenses to collect taxes.

tecuhtli Provincial governors who exercised full political, judicial, and military authority on the Aztec emperor's behalf.

Tenochtitlán A large and prosperous Aztec city that was admired by the Spanish when they entered in 1519.

Teotihuacán A city in central Mexico that became a great commercial center during the Classic period.

terrorism The use of force or violence by a person or organized group with the intention of intimidating societies or governments, often for political purposes.

Tetrarchy A system by which four men ruled the empire.

the Mountain A political group of the French National Assembly, led by Robespierre. It was so called because its members sat on the uppermost left-hand benches of the assembly hall.

The Prince A 1513 treatise by Machiavelli on ways to gain, keep, and expand power; because of its subsequent impact, probably the most important literary work of the Renaissance.

the public The economic and social elites; the philosophes were determined to reach and influence these educated and enlightened individuals.

The Tale of Genji A Japanese literary masterpiece written by Lady Murasaki; it tells the story of court life.

the Way The Dao, the whole natural order.

themes Military districts of the Byzantine Empire; they were governed by generals who held both civil and military authority.

theocracy Government ruled by a priestly order.

Thermidorian reaction The period after the execution of Robespierre in 1794; it was a reaction to the despotism of the Reign of Terror.

thermodynamics A branch of physics built on Newton?s laws of mechanics that investigated the relationship between heat and mechanical energy.

Three Emperors? League A conservative alliance that linked the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia against radical movements.

Tiananmen Square The site of a Chinese student revolt in 1989 at which Communists imposed martial law and arrested, injured, or killed hundreds of students.

Timbuktu Originally a campsite for desert nomads, it grew into a thriving city under Mansa Musa.

Tokugawa Shogunate The Japanese empire fashioned by Ieyasu and lasting until 1867; it is also called the Edo period because the shogunate was located at Edo.

Toltecs An heir to Teotihuacán, this confederation extended its hegemony over most of Central Mexico under the reign of Topiltzin.

Tonghak movement A Korean religious cult movement with strong xenophobic elements; its founder was executed, but it continued to gain support among poor peasants.

Torah Mosaic law or the first five books of the Bible.

total war In each country during the First World War, a government of national unity that began to plan and control economic and social life in order to make the greatest possible military effort.

totalitarianism A dictatorship that exercises unprecedented control over the masses and seeks to mobilize them for action.

traditionalists Those native to a colony who focused on preserving their traditional culture against imperialists at all costs.

transubstantiation The Lutheran doctrine of the Eucharist that states that when the bread and wine are consecrated by the priest at Mass, they are transformed into the actual Body and Blood of Christ.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) The treaty with the United States in which Mexico surrendered its claims to Texas, yielded New Mexico and California, and recognized the Rio Grande as the international border.

Treaty of Lausanne The 1923 treaty that ended the Turkish war and recognized the territorial integrity of a truly independent Turkey.

Treaty of Nanjing The treaty ending the Opium War; it opened five ports to international trade, fixed the tariff on imported goods, imposed an indemnity on China to cover Britain's war expenses, and ceded the island of Hong Kong to Britain.

Treaty of Versailles The World War I treaty that declared Germany responsible for the war; it limited Germany?s army to 100,000 men and forced Germany to pay reparations equal to all civilian damages caused by the war.

trench warfare Fighting behind rows of trenches, mines, and barbed wire; the cost in lives was staggering and the gains in territory minimal.

tribunes The people whom plebeians were able to elect; tribunes would, in turn, protect the plebeians from the arbitrary conduct of patrician magistrates.

tributary system A system used during the Han Dynasty to regulate contact with foreign powers. States and tribes beyond its borders sent envoys bearing gifts and received gifts in return.

Triple Entente The alliance of Great Britain, France, and Russia in the First World War.

Truman Doctrine The U.S. plan to contain communism to areas already occupied by the Red Army.

tsar The Slavic word for "caesar"; Ivan III took this name for an absolute ruler.

Tuareg Along with the Moors, these warriors controlled the north-south trade in salt.

typikon A set of rules for organization and behavior in a monastery.

tyranny Rule by a tyrant, a man who used his wealth to gain a political following that could take over the existing government.

ulama A group of religious scholars whom Sunnis trust to interpret the Qur'an and the Sunna.

umma A community that consisted of those who shared a religious faith and commitment, rather than a tribal tie.

United Nations Founded in 1945 as a resurrected League of Nations, its main purpose is to "maintain international peace and security."

urban explosion A rapid increase in the populations of world cities such as Mexico City.

urbanization without industrialization A sociological phenomenon in which newcomers stream to cities seeking work, even when there are no industrial jobs available.

varna Another name for the strata, or four groups into which Indian society was divided under the caste system.

Velvet Revolution The moment when communism died in 1989 with an ousting of Communist bosses in only ten days; it grew out of popular demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and a dissident playwright.

viceroyalties The name for the four administrative units of Spanish possessions in the Americas: New Spain, Peru, New Granada, and La Plata.

villeins "Inhabitants of small villages? or English serfs.

Virocha The Inca creator-god, who, according to their legend, had brought civilization to them, become displeased, and sailed away, promising to return someday.

vizier The caliph's chief assistant.

war communism The application of the total-war concept to a civil conflict; the Bolsheviks seized grain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalized all banks and industry, and required everyone to work.

War Raw Materials Board Masterminded by Walter Rathenau, this was set up by the German government to ration and distribute raw materials.

Warring States Period The period of Chinese history between 403 and 221 B.C.E., when there was no central authority.

water frame Invented by Richard Arkwright, this machine used water power to spin coarse, strong thread in factories.

Watergate The scandal in which Nixon?s assistants broke into the Democratic Party headquarters in July 1972.

wergeld ?Manmoney? or ?money to buy off the spear?; according to the code of the Salian Franks, this is the particular monetary value that every person had in the tribe.

Works Progress Administration (WPA) The most famous of Roosevelt?s New Deal programs, it employed one-fifth of the entire labor force at some point in the 1930s, constructing public buildings, bridges, and highways.

world empire All of the oldest and most honored kingdoms and peoples of the ancient Near East that were united under the Persian political organization.

world-view A basic outlook on life.

Yahweh A god, who in Medieval Latin became ?Jehovah,? that appeared to Moses on Mount Sinai and made a covenant with the Hebrews.

yangban The top of the Korean social system; these hereditary aristocrats owned most of the land and held most government offices.

yin and yang A concept of complementary poles, one of which represents the feminine, dark, and receptive, and the other the masculine, bright, and assertive.

Young Turks Idealistic Turkish exiles in Europe and young army officers in Istanbul who seized power in the revolution of 1908 and helped pave the way for the birth of modern secular Turkey.

Young Turks The Turkish patriots who had seized power in the revolution of 1908 and now worked for an "Arab movement" in Asia.

yurts Tents in which the Mongols lived; they could be dismantled and loaded onto animals or carts in a short time.

zaibatsu Giant conglomerate firms in Japan.

Zionism The movement toward Jewish political nationhood started by Theodor Herzl.

Zoroastrianism The religion based on the teachings of Zoroaster, who emphasized the individual?s responsibility to choose between good and evil. Though Zoroaster?s teachings often met with opposition, the Persian ruler Darius was a convert.

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