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xenolith
A preexisting rock embedded in a newer igneous rock. Xenoliths are formed when a rising magma incorporates the preexisting rock. If the preexisting rock does not melt, it will not be assimilated into the magma and will therefore remain distinct from the new igneous rock that surrounds it.
X-ray diffraction
The scattering of X rays passed through a mineral sample so as to form a pattern peculiar to the given mineral.

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