Spoken in Thailand, Laos, north Burma, Assam, some
provinces of China.
The written language
Sentence structure and word order
- Indic alphabet, in addition to symbols for
- Spaces correspond to punctuation: this leads
to problems with end punctuation and internal punctuation of
sentences. 47; 50; 51.
- Words are often not separated.
- Makes no distinction between upper and lower
Nouns and pronouns
- Uses S-V-O order, but subject can be omitted.
Verbs and verbals
- No inflections for number, gender, and case:
*They have many book. *I saw they. 44a; 60b.
- No gender or number distinction for
third-person pronoun: *My sister likes his job. *After my parents
left, I missed him. 44a.
- Only one form of relative pronoun: *The man
which has just left . . . 46a.
- Pronouns are complex and reflect speaker's
attitude as well as sex, age, and position in society of the
person addressed. 44a.
- Pronoun subjects can be omitted: *My boss
complained when saw the mess. 38d.
Adjectives and adverbs
- No inflections for tense or number: *He have a
good time yesterday. 41d; 43a.
- No auxiliary verbs: *They work? 41c.
- No distinction between no and not: *The committee will no
- No distinction between adjective and adverb:
*He writes very good. 45b.
- An adjective can function as a verb
so be is not
used with adjectives: *The meal very delicious. 38c; 41c;
- No articles, so learners either omit them or
overuse them: *The books are the important tools for student.