Spoken in Spain, Central America (Costa Rica, El
Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama), South America
(Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru,
Uruguay, Venezuela), Mexico, the Caribbean (Puerto Rico, the
Dominican Republic, Cuba), and many parts of the United
The written language
Sentence structure and word order
- Close correspondence between pronunciation and
spelling, unlike English. 58.
- Quotation marks are not used. 49.
Nouns and pronouns
- Freer word order than in English: *Last night
arrived early her father. 34b; 62b.
- Indirect object occurs with a preposition: *He
gave to me some flowers. 62c.
- Uses that
clauses and subjunctive after certain
verbs: *I want that they leave now. 61c.
- It and there can be omitted as
filler subjects: *Is a tree on the corner. 30b; 64f.
Verbs and verbals
- Nouns have gender. This may cause problems
with pronoun reference: *They saw a sign and peered at her
- Pronouns do not differentiate subject and
object forms: *I told they. 44a.
- No distinction of human and nonhuman relative
pronouns: *The student which sat next to me . . . 44a.
- Pronoun subject often omitted: * . . . because
was raining. *Caused a lot of trouble. 38d; 62a.
- Some uncountable nouns in English are
countable and plural in Spanish: *furnitures, luggages.
Adjectives and adverbs
- No auxiliaries in questions: *What they found?
Or overcompensation: *Who did find it? 41c.
- No modal verbs: *Does he should go? *I will
can help you. 41c.
- Endings corresponding to -ing and -ed do not have active and
passive meaning: *She is interesting in stamps. 61f.
- No -ing nouns (gerunds): *I enjoy
to play tennis. 61d; 63e.
- Equivalent of not
is no: *They no argue.
- Double negative is routinely used: * He
doesn't know nothing. 45g.
- Adjectives show number: *helpfuls
- All comparatives and superlatives are formed
with the equivalents of more
*the most rich man. 45h.
- Definite article
(equivalent of the) used with plural noun to
state a generalization: *The books are more expensive than the