Spoken in countries of the former Soviet
The written language
Sentence structure and word order
- Uses the Cyrillic alphabet with many letters
deceptively similar to letters used in the Latin alphabet.
- Commas set off a dependent clause: *He knows,
that we are right. 47.
Nouns and pronouns
- Word order not necessarily
Subject-Verb-Object, but can be Object-Verb-Subject: *Good grades
received every student in the class. 62b.
- Long descriptive elements precede a noun: *A
nine-meter high impressive monument to Lenin. 46.
- Russian has no equivalent of the English
there is/there are structure: *I'm happy that a lot of people on the
Verbs and verbals
- Some countable nouns are uncountable in
English: *His hairs long. 60c.
- The one form of the relative pronoun does not
make the human/nonhuman distinction: *The people which arrived . .
- No distinction between this/these and
Adjectives and adverbs
Be as a linking verb can be omitted,
especially in present tense: *India more religious than America.
38c; 41c; 61a.
It is is implied: *For them very hard to live
in a city. 64f.
- No forms equivalent to the English perfect or
progressive tense aspects: *He admitted that he lost. *She said
she already deposited the money. *When I walked in, she slept.
- No auxiliary verbs, such as do, will, have: *When she
- No inflections for third person singular: *My
father live there. 43.
- Sequence of tenses not observed: *He told me
that he wants to emigrate. 41d, 41h.
- Passive voice not equivalent to English and
more restricted in use: *The room is cleaning. 42a.
- No object + infinitive structure: *I want that
they try harder. 61e.
- Comparisons are not a direct translation: *She
is more tall than he. 45h.
- Russian has no articles: *Boris student.