Spoken in North and South Korea.
The written language
Sentence structure and word order
- In South Korea, many loan words from Chinese
are used. In the North, Chinese characters have been abolished
from instruction in schools.
- Uses general formulaic expressions such as
"Some people say" rather than specific citations when the writer
takes a stand. 2b.
- Korean alphabet has forty letters, on the
principle of one letter per unit of sound.
Nouns and pronouns
- Usual pattern is S-O-V, with verb at end of
- First- and second-person subjects are
regularly omitted; third-person pronoun subjects can be omitted.
*When Jack arrived, brought flowers. 38d; 62a.
- A relative clause precedes the noun it
modifies, with no relative pronoun: *The enrolled in community
college student . . . 46; 62b.
- Korean has no there
is/there are equivalent: *This article
says four reasons to eat beans. 30b; 34b.
Verbs and verbals
- No relative pronouns. 46a.
- Plural forms are not obligatory after quantity
words and numerals. Plural markers can be attached to adverbs.
Adjectives and adverbs
- A verb does not agree in number or person with
the subject. 43a.
- Use of the passive is defined differently from
English: *We can divide a year into four seasons. *My name base on
Chinese characters. *Times have been changed. 42.
- The infinitive is not used to express purpose:
*I go out for having my dinner. 34c; 61e.
- An adjective includes the idea of
results in too busy with our own lives. 41c; 45c.
Korean does not make a distinction between the
definite and indefinite article. 60e.
- Often uses one
for a: *When I was working, one
man came into the store. 60e.