Spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, parts of Pakistan,
The written language
Sentence structure and word order
- Arabic alphabet, written from right to left.
This can cause students to reverse letters in words.
- No capital letters. 53.
- Quotation marks are seldom used even though
speech is usually written as direct speech: *She said I will help
them. 40d; 49; 62d.
Nouns and pronouns
Common order is S-O-V. 34b.
- Coordination is more common than
subordination. Students might overuse coordination. 34f.
- Although and but
can occur in the same sentence.
*Although it is raining but we will still have the picnic.
Verbs and verbals
- No distinction between he and she, and no equivalent
- Nonhuman plurals have no plural endings. 58a;
- No plural form is used after a number: *four
new lamp. 58a.
- Only one relative pronoun for human and
nonhuman subjects or any case, so students might not distinguish
between who and which. 46a.
- Farsi includes the object pronoun in a
relative clause: *The editor whom you met her last week has gone
to Canada. 46i.
Adjectives and adverbs
- No auxiliary equivalent of do. 41c.
No gerund form (-ing), so students might use
infinitive: *She avoids to go. 61d; 63e.
- Uses the equivalent of have to form the past
- The spoken language interchanges past tense
and present perfect. 41e; 41f.
- Present tense is used in same way as present
progressive, present perfect, and future in English: *I study here
for a year. 41e.
- Adjectives follow nouns. 45.
- No articles: Farsi indicates definiteness and
specificity with a noun suffix. Any unmodified noun may be
generic: *Computer has changed our lives. Students might have
difficulty with the and with marking generic nouns. 60.