Spoken in Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan,
Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan,
Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen.
The written language
Sentence structure and word order
- Arabic is written from right to left.
- Spelling is phonetic. 58.
- No distinction is made between upper and lower
Nouns and pronouns
- Under the influence of the Qur'an (Koran), writers aim
at rhythmical balance and coordination, with the split between
subject and predicate occurring midway in a sentence. 34d.
- Arabic favors coordination over subordination;
sentences often begin with And
or So. 34f.
- Basic word order in Classical Arabic is V-S-O:
the verb precedes the subject: *Hoped the committee to solve the
problem. 34b. Colloquial Arabic is S-V-O.
- Arabic uses a that
clause where English uses infinitive:
*I want that you stay. 61c.
Verbs and verbals
- Personal pronouns are often added to verbs:
*My father he lives in California. 64g.
- Relative pronoun makes no human/nonhuman
distinction, and pronoun object is retained in a restrictive
relative clause: *Here is the student which you met her last week.
- Singular noun is used after a numeral above
ten: *He has eleven cousin.
Adjectives and adverbs
- No equivalent of do: *You have a brother?
- No verb be
in present tense: *They going to the
movies. Where the post office?" 38c.
- No modal verbs. 61b.
- No gerund or infinitive forms. 61.
- Perspective of tense and time is very
different from English. 41d.
- Past perfect is formed with be: *They were eat. 41d,
- Reported speech retains tense of original:
*She said she is leaving. 41i.
- Simple present tense covers meaning of simple
and progressive in English: *She working now. *She working every
- Adjectives occur after noun: *a book
interesting long. 45f.
- No indefinite article: *He is student.
- Definite article is used for days of the week,
some months, some place names, and in many idiomatic expressions:
*He went to the Peru. *He is still in the bed. 60f.