NAACP march in New York City protests antiblack riot in East St. Louis and upsurge in lynchings.
Espionage Act passed.
U.S. government seizes control the nationís railroads.
War Industries Board, Committee on Public Information, and Food Administration created.
U.S. troops withdraw from Mexico.
New York State passes woman-suffrage referendum.
Germany resumes unrestricted U-boat warfare; U.S. breaks diplomatic relations.
Jones Act makes Puerto Ricans U.S. citizens.
Alien land law passed in Arizona.
Bolsheviks seize power in Russia; Russia leaves War.
Selective Service Act institutes conscription of men aged twenty to thirty.
Korean Christian Church established in Hawaii by Syngman Rhee.
Immigration Act requiring literacy test and excluding most Asian nationals passed over President Wilson's veto (February).†U.S. declares war on Germany; enters World War I (April 6)
First American troops arrive in France (October).