Ex-Confederate states hold constitutional conventions (May–December).Several southern states institute "Black Codes," restricting rights of former slaves.
Black conventions begin in the ex-Confederate states (May–December).Sherman moves through South Carolina (January).Central Pacific Railroad Co. recruits Chinese workers for first transcontinental railroad (January).
Freedmen's Bureau established (March 3).
General Grant captures Richmond, VA (April 3).
General Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomatox Court House (April 9).
President Lincoln Assassinated; Shot by John Wilkes Booth While Attending the Theater (April 14).
Andrew Johnson becomes president (April 15).
Joseph Johnston surrenders to Sherman (April 18).
Explosion of the steamship Sultana
kills seventeen hundred people, mostly returning Union soldiers (April 27).
Johnson issues Proclamation of Amnesty (May 29).
Mary Surratt hanged for her role in the assassination of President Lincoln; first woman executed by the federal government (July).Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified: "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States..." (December 6).