Formation of Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteers, first all-black U.S. Army regiment.
Formation of the First Battalion of Native Cavalry; first Hispanic regiment.
Rochester, New York holds a trades' assembly; marks the revival of trade unions in America.
The First International (Marxist labor organization) begins in London.
National Bank Act (February).
President Lincoln suspends writ of habeas corpus nationwide (January).
West Virginia splits from Virginia, is admitted to the Union.
Battle of Chickamauga (September).
President Lincoln issues Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction.
President Lincoln signs Emancipation Proclamation: frees all slaves in areas still in rebellion (January 1).
Congress votes to conscript male citizens ages twenty to forty-five, excluding those who send a substitute or pay $300 (March).Lee wins the Battle of Chancellorsville (May).
Antidraft riots in New York City quelled by Union soldiers (July).
Battle of Gettysburg: Union forces under General Meade decisively defeat Confederate forces under General Lee (July 3).
Vicksburg falls to Union forces, opening up the Mississippi (July 4).
Quantrill's Raiders butcher the town of Lawrence, Kansas (August).