| The Heath Anthology of
American Literature, Fifth Edition
The Coming of the Spanish and the Pueblo Revolt (Hopi)
Among Native American tales, historical narratives frequently
relate the encounter with European colonizers and efforts to resist their
domination. In this Hopi narrative of the coming of the Spanish, we find what
some native groups call “memory culture” embracing centuries of time as if it
existed on one chronological level. The story relates events in the absence of
a linear historical sense which would locate events according to their
relationship in real time. In other words, the story collapses chronology,
telling centuries of happenings within one time-reference.
Many stories of this
vast historical literature are of value for Euro-Americans, for they tell of
colonization and its rejection from the Native American
perspective. The Hopi narrative, with its unflattering picture of
Franciscan missionizing—substantiated in large measure by documentary
records—stands in stark contrast to Villagrá’s Catholic vision of the conquest
as a glorious march of the cross. More importantly, the story highlights the
profound differences between the two cultures, differences even centuries of
contact have not altered. The Spanish understood native religions as paganism
and felt duty-bound to eradicate them, for the good of the individual native as
well as for the larger community. Indians, on the other hand, questioned a God
who commanded them to abandon their kachina religion, knowing that extinction
was the logical consequence of suppressing a traditional religion that had
secured rain, food, and life itself, since their emergence into the day-world.
While some tribes would forge a close working relationship with the
colonizers—Spanish and Anglo-Americans—the Hopis pride themselves on never having given in or up.
New Mexico State University
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Spanish-Indian Relations in the Seventeenth Century: The Causes and Results of the Pueblo Revolt of 1680
An academic essay by Jane C. Sanchez.
The Pueblo Revolt
The text of a letter from Don Antonio de Otermin in the moment of the revolt, while surrounded by Indians.
The Spanish Re-Conquest of New Mexico and the Pueblo Revolt of 1696
Another historical essay on the Pueblo Revolt, with a scanned portrait of de Vargas.
Ramon Gutierrez, When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away, 1991
Denis Tedlock, The Spoken Word and the Work of Interpretation, 1983