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 Critical Thinking
 Critical Thinking
Textbook Site for:
Critical Thinking, Thoughtful Writing, Second Edition
John Chaffee et al.
Web Links
Chapter 8: Exploring Causal Relationships: Writing to Speculate

Exploring the Chapter Topic

The British-American Tobacco Document Collection
The University of California at San Francisco’s online collection of documents, some dating back to the 1950s, became available as part of a lawsuit filed against the tobacco companies by the Attorney General of Minnesota and Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Minnesota against the British-American Tobacco Company to determine whether BATC would acknowledge a causal relationship between smoking and poor health. The document collection is searchable and indexed by subject.

Fallacy Tutorial
This site offers definitions and examples of 42 fallacies, including many of the ones discussed in the chapter. The information is provided under the auspices of The Nizkor Project, an organization devoted to documenting Holocaust history and battling those who assert that the genocide of Jews in World War II never occurred (also known as "Holocaust deniers").

Ishikawa Diagram
This site is devoted to cause-and-effect diagrams, also referred to as Ishikawa diagrams, after their inventor, Kaoru Ishikawa, who first began using them in the 1960s. (They are also known as "fishbone diagrams" because of their shape.)

WebMD offers medical information online. Look at the way cause-and-effect relationships are formulated in various articles and advice sections available throughout the web site. It is interesting to note whether the articles link causes concretely to effects or whether causes are said "likely" to lead to certain effects.

True Random Number Service
This site generates random numbers for anyone who wants one. Generally, being able to obtain a random number guarantees that there can be no predictable cause and effect relationships between certain events (between, for example, the person who chooses a contest winner and the person who turns out to be the winner). The coin-flipping game available at this site uses true random numbers to determine whether an e-coin comes up heads or tails.

Exploring the Readings

Carl Hiaasen, "The Last Days of Florida Bay"
BookPage Interview January 2000: Carl Hiaasen
This is an article highlighting part of an interview that Jay Lee MacDonald conducted with Carl Hiaasen about Hiaasen’s 1999 book Sick Puppy. Included is a photograph of Hiaasen.

The Unofficial Carl Hiaasen Home Page
This fan site by Marcus Zelzer features a good deal of information about Hiaasen and his work.

Report on the Florida Bay
This site provides the text of a report prepared for the Program Management Committee, Florida Bay Research Program (the report was submitted to the committee in 1998).

Washington Post, "Replumbing Florida"
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
An extensive site with information on conservation efforts throughout Florida.

Joan Didion, "Holy Water"
DWR California Water Page
The home page of the Department of Water Resources in California. Provides information on the State Water Project.

Environmental Defense: Dams Around the World
This page provides a map of the world with icons indicating major dam projects (including proposed dams, dams under construction, and dams proposed for removal). Each icon is clickable and links to information about the dam it represents.

Ted Plafker, "Competition Grows in China Over Dwindling Water Resources"
US - China Water Resources Management Program
This site offers information about the US - China Water Resources Management Program, including official documents and upcoming meetings.