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Thinking Critically, Seventh Edition
John Chaffee et al.
Author Biographies
Chapter 9: Reporting, Inferring, and Judging

"The End of My Childhood" by N. Scott Momaday (p. 413)
N. Scott Momaday (1934- )

Both of Momaday's parents trace their heritage to native American tribes. His mother had a Cherokee great-grandmother and his father was from the Kiowa Tribe. Momaday was originally raised on a farm in Oklahoma among the Kiowas, but grew up in New Mexico, where his parents worked among the Jemez Indians. His memoirs include his Anglo-American heritage, but Momaday imagines himself to be all Indian in order to connect with the life, the emotions, and the spirit of his Kiowa ancestors. Momaday won the Pulitzer Prize in fiction in 1969 for House Made of Dawn.

"Evolution as Fact and Theory" by Stephen Jay Gould (p. 441)
Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002)


Gould was born in New York City and earned a B.A. from Antioch College and a Ph.D. from Columbia University. He became a professor of geology at Harvard University, where he remained his entire career. His interests expanded to evolutionary biology, and he was also curator of invertebrate paleontology at Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoology. Gould viewed science not as a coldly objective pursuit but rather as a creative human activity.

Professionally, Gould was well known for his Ontogeny and Phylogeny (1977), but he was equally known for his wit as well as his wisdom. He had a gift for being able to translate complex scientific theories into prose that the lay person could easily understand. His regular column in Natural History magazine, "This View of Life," was widely read and respected, and the essays were collected in such volumes as Ever Since Darwin (1977), The Panda's Thumb (1980), and The Flamingo's Smile (1985).



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