Most Important Changes:
Other Changes Significant to Many Instructors:
- Updates and expansion of the popular Case in Print feature; all fifteen chapters now have a Case in Print.
- Updated and expanded technology coverage throughout, both in the text and in the Resources for Further Investigation.
- Use of marginal icons/notes to refer students to appropriate sections of the text web site, helping to integrate the web material and the printed text.
- To enhance ease of reading, many long paragraphs have been divided into shorter ones or converted into bullet lists.
- New coverage of high-stakes testing (Chapter 14).
- New attention to the standards movement (small additions to Chapters 1, 2, and 13, plus treatment in Chapter 14 in connection with high-stakes testing).
- Considerable expansion of material on Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development (Chapter 2).
Major Chapter-by-Chapter Changes:
- New material on character education (Chapter 2).
- New coverage of children's theory of mind and of their increasing awareness of cognitive processes and different ways of knowing (Chapter 3).
- Updated discussion of gender differences (Chapters 2, 4).
- New material on digital portfolios (Chapter 13).
Chapter 1: Applying Psychology to Teaching
- Additions to the section "The Role of Technology in Learning and Instruction": current statistics on percentage of schools and classrooms that have computers; teacher resources on the Web; the importance of using technology within a learner-centered approach to teaching; and the technology standards and competencies proposed by the International Society for Technology in Education.
Chapter 2: Stage Theories of Development
- A new chapter section on Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development. Topics include how one's culture affects cognitive development, the importance of psychological tools, how social interactions affect cognitive development, and how scaffolded instruction within a student's zone of proximal development affects cognitive development.
- A new section on the role of social interaction and instruction in Piaget's theory of cognitive development.
- New coverage of "Research on Character Education Programs."
- New material on gender differences in identity formation.
- The relationship of concrete operational schemes to the science education standards set forth by the National Research Council.
- Current research on adolescents' capabilities for formal operational reasoning.
- Recent criticisms of Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
- New Case in Print on how multi-age grouping incorporates the ideas of both Piaget and Vygotsky.
Chapter 3: Age-Level Characteristics
- Preschool and Kindergarten: New material on the development of children's theory of mind.
- Primary Grades: New material on children's growing awareness (a) that there different ways to know things, and that some ways are better than others, and (b) that cognitive processes can be voluntarily invoked.
- Middle School Grades: New material on how the values and practices of middle school teachers affect students' learning.
- Middle School Grades: New Case in Print on children's rapid changes.
- High School Grades: Current statistics on sexual behavior, out-of-wedlock births, sexually transmitted diseases, after-school employment, substance abuse, and suicide.
- High School Grades: New material on the relationship between parenting styles and adolescent behavior.
Chapter 4: Understanding Student Differences
- Additional and updated research on gender differences in cognition and achievement, course selection, computer use, and career choice (particularly careers in science).
- New Case in Print on one school's attempt to interest girls in science and technology.
- Update of Gardner's multiple intelligences theory to include the eighth intelligence (naturalist).
- Expansion and update of research on the nature of field-independence versus field-dependence and the relationship of these styles to academic behavior.
Chapter 5: Addressing Cultural and Socioeconomic Diversity
- Expanded, updated material on developmental bilingual education programs.
- New and updated material on using technology for multicultural and bilingual education.
- Updated statistics on immigration to the United States, birthrate patterns, and the effect of those two forces on the ethnic makeup of the school-age population.
- Updated research on the characteristics of children from low-SES families, including career plans, self-esteem, and the effects of parent-child relationships.
- Current research on cooperative learning.
- Two new Suggestions for Teaching relating to value systems and community service activities.
Chapter 6: Accommodating Student Variability
- Material on inclusion highlighted with a section of its own.
- New, expanded coverage of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
- New material of 1997 amendments to IDEA.
- A new Case in Print that describes a program to help students with learning disabilities improve their social skills.
Chapter 7: Behavioral and Social Learning Theories
- Expanded treatment of research on the effect of teacher modeling on students' learning of cognitive skills.
- New material summarizing research on integrated learning systems and hypermedia programs.
- Enhanced discussion of the computer as both a tutor and a problem-solving tool.
- Addition of several web sites that can help teachers evaluate the quality of educational software.
Chapter 8: Information-Processing Theory
- Addition of current research about (a) the effect of concreteness and visual imagery on reading comprehension and (b) the beneficial effects of mnemonics.
- A new Case in Print on problems of memory.
Chapter 9: Constructivist Learning Theory, Problem Solving, and Transfer
- A new Case in Print describing the constructivist teaching approach of teachers who were named to the All-USA Teacher First Team.
- A new section on e-mail exchange programs.
- Enhanced discussion of technology's role in constructivist learning, including (a) the use of computers as mindtools and (b) recent developments in the CSILE and CoVis projects (and their successors), the Jasper Woodbury series, and the Scientists in Action series.
- Updated research on prior knowledge, the use of worked examples to increase problem-solving skill, and the use of pictures or charts as an aid to problem solving.
Chapter 10: Approaches to Instruction
- A new section "Research on Aspects of Humanistic Education," which pays particular attention to students' sense of belonging.
- A new section, "Teachers' Use of Cooperative Learning," discussing how many teachers make adaptations and modifications (not always wise ones) to the cooperative learning model.
- Updated discussions of intelligent tutoring systems, the Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) program, and the use of technology to support a social constructivist approach.
Chapter 11: Motivation
- A new section, "The Effect of Interest on Intrinsic Motivation."
- Updated research on attribution theory, beliefs about the nature of cognitive ability, and the effect of technology on motivation.
- New Suggestions for Teaching in Your Classroom that focus on increasing student motivation by using positive reinforcement in effective ways, encouraging appropriate attributions for success and failure, helping students to master objectives, and encouraging students to adopt mastery rather than performance goals.
Chapter 12: Classroom Management
- New coverage of the role of interpersonal problem-solving skills in preventing disruptive behavior.
- Additional examples of the use of active listening and I-messages to manage student behavior.
- Expanded, updated discussions of peer mentoring, the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP), and the role of technology in classroom management.
- Current statistics on crime by juveniles and violence in schools .
- Updated research on the biological basis of violence.
Chapter 13: Assessment of Classroom Learning
- A new discussion of "Responsiveness to Cultural Diversity," concerning the use of performance tests to more fairly and accurately assess the knowledge and skills of all students, particularly minority students.
- Expanded discussion of digital portfolios.
- Connection of performance tests to the learning standards adopted by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, the National Council for the Social Studies, the National Council of Teachers of English, and the National Research Council.
- Updated recommendations on technological tools to aid in classroom grading.
Chapter 14: Understanding and Using Standardized Tests
- An extensive new chapter section, "Using Standardized Tests for Accountability Purposes: High-Stakes Testing." This section covers, among other topics, the push for accountability in education and the rise of state standards; problems with high-stakes testing programs; what professional educators and measurement experts think of the practice; and how, in some cases, performance-based assessment has been incorporated into state testing programs.
- A new Case in Print on high-stakes testing.
Chapter 15: Becoming a Better Teacher by Becoming a Reflective Teacher
- New coverage of the use of videotaped lessons and a guided reflection protocol to help teachers reflect on the quality of their instruction.
- New guidelines to help teachers construct a professional portfolio (included under the new section "Using a Portfolio with Your Journal").
- "Using Technology for Reflection" has been promoted to an A-head, with two new subordinate B-heads: "Discussion Forums and Chat Rooms" (a section that now contains specific recommended web sites) and "Multimedia Case-Based Instruction" (a section with new material on using case studies for professional development).