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Paragraph Essentials, First Edition
Linda Wong
Additional Exercises
Chapter 9: Cause-Effect Paragraphs

Cause-Effect Paragraph: Smoking
Read the following paragraph carefully. Notice that each sentence is numbered. Answer the questions that follow by typing your responses in the text boxes. After you complete the exercise, click on Email to email your work to your instructor, or click on Print to print a copy of your work.

(1) Smoking has many serious effects. (2) The most obvious effect is the deterioration of a smoker's health. (3) Smoking increases the risk of lung disease, increases blood pressure, increases the risk of heart attacks, and reduces the flow of oxygen to the brain. (4) Smoking creates respiratory problems. (5) A smoker's cough expels phlegm, a thick mucus in the nose and the throat that wants to escape the body. (6) Prolonged use may lead to emphysema and the need to hook up to a machine to pump enough oxygen into the lungs. (7) Another effect of this habit is that smoking breeds halitosis; a smoker's breath always smells foul and repulsive. (8) Smoking frequently results in social isolation because fewer people smoke or want to be in the presence of second-hand smoke. (9) Friends and acquaintances often bluntly tell their smoking friends that they don't want the smell in their cars or in their homes. (10) The strong, offensive odor of smoke clings to smokers' clothing, hair, and skin. (11) The final effect of smoking is that it depletes the pocketbook. (12) Smoking is now an expensive habit, and the price of cigarettes continues to rise. (13) The effects of smoking are many, which leaves one wondering why intelligent people do not find a way to break their harmful addiction.

1. Is the topic sentence effective for a cause-effect paragraph? Explain your answer.

2. Which sentences introduce each of the effects of smoking? Write the sentence numbers.

3. Which effect is discussed with the greatest number of secondary details?

4. How does the writer achieve coherence in this paragraph? What order is used for the details?

5. Is the concluding sentence effective? Explain your answer.


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