review pooled, anonymous evaluation by ones
boss, peers, and subordinates.
principle a minority of causes, inputs, or effort
to produce a majority of results, outputs, or rewards.
accommodative social responsibility strategy assuming additional responsibilities in response to
advocacy advertising promoting a point of view along with a product or service.
affirmative action program (AAP) making
up for past discrimination by actively seeking and employing minorities.
dispute resolution avoiding courtroom battles
by settling disputes with less costly methods, including arbitration and mediation.
altruism unselfish devotion to the interests of others.
amoral managers managers who are neither moral nor immoral, but ethically
anticipatory changes planned changes based on expected situations.
authority the right to
direct the actions of others.
behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) performance appraisal scales with notations about observable
behavior-based interview detailed questions
about specific behavior in past job-related situations.
benchmarking identifying, studying, and building upon the best
practices of organizational role models.
body language nonverbal
communication based on facial expressions, posture, and appearance.
cafeteria compensation plan that allows
employees to select their own mix of benefits.
capability profile identifying the organizations
strengths and weaknesses.
responsible for the difference between actual and desired conditions.
centralization the retention
of decision-making authority by top management.
closed system a self-sufficient entity.
cluster organization collaborative structure
in which teams are the primary unit.
coercive power gaining
compliance through threats or punishment.
cohesiveness the tendency
of a group
to stick together.
collectivist cultures cultures that emphasize duty and loyalty to collective
goals and achievements.
transfer of information and understanding.
comparative management the study
of how organizational behavior and management practices differ across cultures.
concurrent control monitoring and adjusting ongoing activities and processes.
concurrent engineering team approach to product design involving specialists
from all functional areas including research, production, and marketing.
conflict incompatible behaviors that make another person less
conflict trigger any factor that increases
the chances of conflict.
contingency approach research effort to determine which managerial practices
and techniques are appropriate in specific situations.
contingency design fitting
the organization to its environment.
control taking preventive or corrective actions to keep things
control chart visual aid showing acceptable
and unacceptable variations from the norm for repetitive operations.
philanthropy charitable donation of company
corporate social responsibility the idea
that business has social obligations above and beyond making a profit.
creativity the reorganization of experience into new configurations.
critical path most time-consuming route
through a PERT network.
cross-cultural training guided experience
that helps people live and work in foreign cultures.
cross-functional team task group staffed
with a mix of specialists pursuing a common objective.
culture a populations taken-for-granted assumptions,
values, beliefs, and symbols,
foster patterned behavior.
culture shock negative
feelings triggered by an expectations-reality mismatch.
customer-centered satisfying the customers
needs by anticipating, listening, and responding.
shares decision-making authority with lower-level employees.
decision making identifying and choosing
alternative courses of action.
rule tells when and how programmed decisions
should be made.
defensive social responsibility strategy resisting additional responsibilities with legal and public
delegation assigning various
degrees of decision-making authority to lower-level employees.
Deming management application of W. Edwards
ideas for more responsive, more democratic, and less wasteful organizations.
demographics statistical profiles of population changes.
departmentalization grouping related jobs or processes into major organizational
differentiation buyer perceives unique and superior value in a product.
e-business a business
using the Internet for greater efficiency in every aspect of its operations.
effectiveness a central element in the process of management that entails
achieving a stated organizational objective.
efficiency a central element
in the process of management that balances the amount of resources used to
achieve an objective against what was actually accomplished.
intelligence the ability to monitor and control
emotions and behavior in complex social settings.
employment selection test any procedure
used in the employment decision process.
empowerment making employees full partners
in the decision-making process and giving them the necessary tools and rewards.
enlightened self-interest a business ultimately
helping itself by helping to solve societal problems.
entrepreneurship process of pursuing opportunities without regard to
resources currently under ones control.
escalation of commitment people
get locked into losing courses of action to avoid the embarrassment
of quitting or admitting error.
ethical advocate ethics specialist who
plays a role in top-management decision making.
ethics the study
of moral obligation involving right versus wrong.
ethnocentric attitude view
that assumes the home countrys personnel and ways of doing things are
executive reality check top managers periodically
working at lower-level jobs to become more aware of operations.
exit interview brief
structured interview with a departing employee.
belief or expectation that one thing will lead to another.
expectancy theory model
that assumes motivational strength is determined by perceived probabilities
power compliance based on ability to dispense
explicit knowledge documented
and sharable information.
extrinsic rewards payoffs, such as money, that are granted by others.
feedback control checking a completed
activity and learning from mistakes.
feedforward control active anticipation and prevention of problems, rather
than passive reaction.
fishbone diagram a cause-and-effect diagram.
employees to choose their own arrival and departure times within specified
chart graphic display of a sequence of activities
formal group collection of people created
to do something productive.
leadership the process of influencing others
to pursue official objectives.
framing error how
information is presented influences ones interpretation of it.
Gantt chart graphic
general systems theory an area of study based on the assumption that everything
is part of a larger, interdependent arrangement.
geocentric attitude world-oriented
view that draws upon the best talent from around the globe.
glass ceiling the
transparent but strong barrier keeping women and minorities from moving up
the management ladder.
global company a multinational venture
centrally managed from a specific country.
goal setting process
of improving performance with objectives, deadlines, or quality standards.
grand strategy how the
organizations mission will be accomplished.
grapevine unofficial and informal communication system.
group two or more freely
interacting individuals with a common identity and purpose.
term for blind conformity in cohesive in-groups.
high-context cultures cultures in which
nonverbal and situational messages convey primary meaning.
histogram bar chart indicating deviations from a standard bell-shaped
hourglass organization a three-layer structure
with a constricted middle layer.
capital the need to develop to their fullest
potential all present and future employees.
human relations movement an effort to make managers more sensitive to their employees
human resource management the acquisition,
retention, and development of human resources.
idealize to change the nature of a problems situation.
incremental changes subsystem adjustments required to keep the organization
individualistic cultures cultures that
emphasize individual rights, roles, and achievements.
influence any attempt to change anothers
informal group collection of people seeking
informal leadership the process of influencing others to pursue unofficial
innovation lag time it takes for a new
idea to be translated into satisfied demand.
innovation process the
systematic development and practical application of a new idea.
intermediate planning determining subunits contributions
using allocated resources.
internal auditing independent appraisal
of organizational operations and systems to assess effectiveness and efficiency.
internal customer anyone
in your organization who cannot do a good job unless you do a good job.
international management pursuing organizational objectives in international and
Internet global network of servers and
personal and organizational computers.
intrapreneur an employee who takes personal responsibility for
pushing an innovative idea through a large organization.
intrinsic rewards self-granted
and internally experienced payoffs, such as a feeling of accomplishment.
iron law of responsibility those who do
not use power in a socially responsible way will eventually lose it.
analysis identifying task and skill requirements
for specific jobs by studying superior performers.
job description document that outlines
role expectations and skill requirements for a specific job.
job enrichment redesigning
jobs to increase their motivational potential.
kaizen a Japanese
word meaning continuous improvement.
knowledge management developing a system to improve the creation and sharing
of knowledge critical for
decision making .
law of unintended consequences the results
of purposeful actions are often difficult to predict.
influence process involving
inspiring and guiding others in a common effort.
legal audit review of all operations to pinpoint possible legal
liabilities or problems.
legitimate power compliance based on ones
low-context cultures cultures
in which words convey primary meaning.
management the process
of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives in
a changing environment.
management by objectives (MBO) comprehensive
management system based on measurable and participatively set objectives.
functions general administrative duties that
need to be carried out in virtually all productive organizations to achieve
managing diversity process
of helping all employees, including women and minorities, reach their full
mechanistic organizations rigid bureaucracies.
richness a mediums
capacity to convey information and promote learning.
mentor someone who develops
another person through tutoring, coaching, and guidance.
monochronic time a perception of time as a straight line broken into
psychological process that gives
behavior purpose and direction.
multivariate analysis research technique used to determine how a combination
of variables interacts to cause a particular outcome.
noise any interference with the normal flow of communication.
nonprogrammed decisions decisions made
in complex and nonroutine situations.
norms general standards of conduct for
various social settings.
objective commitment to
achieve a measurable result within a specified period.
open-book management sharing key financial
data and profits with employees who are trained and empowered.
open system something that depends on its surrounding environment
operational approach production-oriented field of management dedicated to improving
efficiency and cutting waste.
operational planning determining
how to accomplish specific tasks with available resources.
operations management the process of transforming material and human resources
into useful goods and services.
optimize to systematically identify the
the best combination of benefits.
organic organizations flexible,
organization a cooperative
and coordinated social system of two or more people with a common purpose.
organizational behavior a modern approach seeking to discover the causes of work
behavior and develop better management techniques.
organizational culture shared
values, beliefs, and language that create a common identity and sense of community.
organizational effectiveness being
effective, efficient, satisfying, adaptive and developing, and ultimately
organizational politics the pursuit of
self-interest in response to real or imagined opposition.
organizational socialization the process
of transforming outsiders into accepted insiders.
organizational values shared beliefs about what the organization stands
organization chart visual display of organizations
positions and lines of authority.
organization development (OD) planned change programs intended to help people and organizations
function more effectively.
organizing creating a
coordinated authority and task structure.
from a group.
Pareto analysis bar
chart indicating which problem needs the most attention.
participative management empowering employees to assume greater control of the
PDCA cycle Demings
relies on observed data to
performance appraisal evaluating job performance
as a basis for personnel decisions.
Evaluation and Review Technique) graphic sequencing
and scheduling tool for complex projects.
PERT activity work in process.
event performance milestone; start or finish
of an activity.
PERT times weighted time estimates for
completion of PERT activities.
objective plus an action statement.
planning coping with uncertainty by formulating courses of
action to achieve specified results.
planning horizon the elapsed
time between planning and execution.
polychronic time a
perception of time as flexible, elastic, and multidimensional.
power ability to marshal resources to get something done.
goals, objectives, or activities in order of importance.
proactive social responsibility strategy taking the initiative with new programs that serve as
models for the industry.
problem the difference between actual
and desired states of affairs.
solving the conscious
process of closing the gap between actual and desired situations.
production technology third
stage of the innovation
a profitable production process.
product technology second
stage of the innovation
creating a working prototype.
programmed decisions repetitive and routine
quality conformance to requirements.
reactive changes changes
made in response to unexpected situations.
reactive social responsibility
strategy denying responsibility and resisting
referent power compliance
based on charisma or personal identification.
following up a change program for lasting results.
power gaining compliance through rewards.
and psychological payoffs for working.
role socially determined way of behaving in a specific position.
run chart a
trend chart for tracking a variable over time.
settle for a solution that is good enough.
scatter diagram diagram that plots relationships
between two variables.
scientific management developing performance standards on the basis of systematic
observation and experimentation.
self-managed teams high-performance teams
that assume traditional managerial duties such as staffing and planning.
harassment unwanted sexual attention that creates
an offensive or intimidating work environment.
situational analysis finding the organizations
niche by performing a SWOT analysis.
small business an
independently owned and managed profit-seeking enterprise with fewer than
span of control number of people who report directly to a given manager.
stakeholder audit identifying all parties
possibly impacted by the organization.
changes altering the overall shape or direction
of the organization.
strategic management seeking a competitively
superior organization-environment fit.
strategic planning determining how to
pursue long-term goals with available resources.
structured interview a set of job-related questions that
synergy the concept that the whole is
greater than the sum of its parts.
system a collection of parts that operate interdependently to
achieve a common purpose.
tacit knowledge personal,
intuitive, and undocumented information.
technology all the tools and ideas available
for extending the natural physical and mental reach of humankind.
telecommuting sending work to and from ones
office via computer modem while working at home.
tempered radicals people
who quietly try to change the dominant organizational culture in line with
Theory Y McGregors
optimistic assumptions about working people.
total quality management (TQM) creating
an organizational culture committed to continuous improvement in every regard.
training using guided experience to change
transformational leaders visionaries
who challenge people to do exceptional things.
transnational company a futuristic model
of a global, decentralized network with no distinct national identity.
trust belief in the integrity, character, or ability of
unfreezing neutralizing resistance by preparing people for change.
universal process approach assumes that all
organizations require the same rational management process.
upward communication encouraging
employees to share their feelings and ideas with management.
videoconference live television or broadband
Internet video exchange between people in different locations.
virtual organizations Internet-linked
networks of value-adding subcontractors.
virtual team task
group members from dispersed locations who are electronically linked.
whistle-blowing reporting perceived unethical
organizational practices to outside authorities.