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Leadership – Research Findings, Practice, and Skills , Fourth Edition
Andrew J. DuBrin, Rochester Institute of Technology
Glossary

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Numbers in brackets indicate chapter reference.



Achievement motivation   Finding joy in accomplishment for its own sake. [2]

Assertiveness   Forthrightness in expressing demands, opinions, feelings, and attitudes. [2]

Attributions   The judgments we make about the behavior and attitudes of others. [12]

Attribution theory   The process of attributing causality to events. [1]

Autocratic leader   A person in charge who retains most of the authority for himself or herself. [4]






Bandwagon technique   A manipulative approach emphasizing that “everybody else is doing it.” [8]

Behavior modification   An attempt to change behavior by manipulating rewards and punishment. [10]

Behavior shaping   Rewarding any response in the right direction and then rewarding only the closest approximation. [10]

Blemish   A simple game in which the manager always finds a flaw in a group member’s work. [8]






Casual time orientation   The view that time is an unlimited and unending resource, leading toward extreme patience. [14]

Centrality   The extent to which a unit’s activities are linked into the system of organized activities. [7]

Charisma   A special quality of leaders whose purposes, powers, and extraordinary determination differentiate them from others. [3]

Coalition   A specific arrangement of parties working together to combine their power. [8]

Coercive power   The power to punish for noncompliance; power based on fear. [7]

Cognitive factors   Problem-solving and intellectual skills. [2]

Cognitive resource theory   An explanation of leadership emphasizing that stress plays a key role in determining how a leader’s intelligence is related to group performance. [5]

Collectivisim   A belief that the group and society should receive top priority. [14]

Commitment   The most successful outcome of a leader’s influence tactic: The person makes a full effort. [8]

Compliance   Partial success of an influence attempt by a leader: The person makes a modest effort. [8]

Concern for others   In Hofstede’s research, an emphasis on personal relationships, concern for others, and a high quality of life. (Also known as femininity.) [14]

Concert building   A conception of the leader’s role that involves both aligning and mobilizing. [4]

Congruence   The matching of verbal and nonverbal communication to what the sender is thinking and feeling. [12]

Conjunctive communication   Communication that is linked logically to previous messages, thus enhancing communication. [12]

Consensus leader   The person in charge who encourages group discussion about an issue and then makes a decision that reflects general agreement and will be supported by group members. [4]

Consideration of others   Creating an environment of emotional support, warmth, friendliness, and trust. [4]

Consultative leader   A person in charge who confers with group members before making a decision. [4]

Contingency approach to leadership   The contention that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent upon situational forces, including group member characteristics. [5]

Cooperation theory   A belief in cooperation and collaboration rather than competitiveness as a strategy for building teamwork. [9]

Crisis leadership   The process of leading group members through a sudden and largely unanticipated, intensely negative and emotionally draining circumstance. [5]

Creativity   The production of novel and useful ideas. [11]

Cultural sensitivity   An awareness of and a willingness to investigate the reasons why people of another culture act as they do. [14]






Debasement   The act of demeaning or insulting oneself to control the behavior of another person. [8]

Delegation   The assignment of formal authority and responsibility for accomplishing a specific task to another person. [7]

Democratic leader   A person in charge who confers final authority on the group. [4]

Disjunctive communication   Communication that is not linked to the preceding messages, resulting in impaired communication. [12]

Diversity training   A learning experience designed to bring about workplace harmony by teaching people how to get along better with diverse work associates. [14]

Domains of impact   Areas of possible change in leadership development programs. [15]

Double-loop learning   An in-depth style of learning that occurs when people use feedback to confront the validity of the goal or the values implicit in the situation. [15]

Drive   A propensity to put forth high energy into achieving goals, and persistence in applying that energy. [2]






Effective leader   One whose actions facilitate group members’ attainment of productivity, quality, and satisfaction. [4]

Emotional intelligence   Qualities such as understanding one’s feelings, empathy for others, and the regulation of emotions to enhance living. [2]

Emotional stability   The ability to control emotions to the point that one’s emotional responses are appropriate to the occasion. [2]

Employee network group   A group of employees throughout the company who affiliate on the basis of a group characteristic such as race, ethnicity, sex, sexual orientation, or physical ability status. [14]

Empowerment   Passing decision-making authority and responsibility from managers to group members. [7]

Ethics   The study of moral obligations, or separating right from wrong. [6]

Executive coach (or business coach)   An outside or inside specialist who advises a person about personal improvement and behavioral change. [10]

Expectancy   An individual’s assessment of the probability that effort will lead to correct performance of the task. [10]

Expectancy theory   A theory of motivation based on the premise that the amount of effort people expend depends on how much reward they can expect in return. [10]

Experience of flow   An experience so engrossing and enjoyable that the task becomes worth doing for its own sake regardless of the external consequences. [11]

Expert power   The ability to influence others because of one’s specialized knowledge, skills, or abilities. [3]

Expertise approach   A belief that the leader’s most important responsibility is providing an area of expertise that will be a source of competitive advantage. [2]






Farsightedness   The ability to understand the long-range implications of actions and policies. [2]

Feedback-intensive development program   A learning experience that helps leaders develop by see- ing more clearly their patterns of behaviors, the reasons for such behaviors, and the impact of these behaviors and attitudes on their effectiveness. [15]

Flexibility   The ability to adjust to different situations. [2]

Forced-association technique   A method of releasing creativity in which individuals or groups solve a problem by making associations between the properties of two objects. [11]

Formality   The attachment of considerable importance to tradition, ceremony, social rules, and rank. [14]






Game   A repeated series of exchanges between people that seems plausible but has a hidden agenda or purpose. [8]

Goal   What a person is trying to accomplish. [10]

Groupthink   A deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment in the interest of group solidarity. [9]






Hands-on leader   A leader who gets directly involved in the details and process of operations. [8]

High tolerance for frustration   The ability to cope with a hindrance to goal attainment. [2]






Individualism   A mental set in which people see themselves first as individuals and believe their own interests and values take priority. [14]

Influence   The ability to affect the behavior of others in a particular direction. [8]

Informality   A casual attitude toward tradition, ceremony, social rules, and rank. [14]

Information power   Power stemming from formal control over the information people need to do their work. [7]

Initiating structure   Organizing and defining relationships in the group by activities such as assigning specific tasks, specifying procedures to be followed, scheduling work, and clarifying expectations of team members. [4]

Innovation   The process of creating new ideas and putting them into action. [11]

Insight   A depth of understanding that requires considerable intuition and common sense. [2]

Instrumentality   An individual’s assessment of the probability that performance will lead to certain outcomes. [10]

Integrity   Loyalty to rational principles, thereby practicing what one preaches, regardless of emotional or social pressure. [6]

Internal locus of control   The belief that one is the primary cause of events happening to oneself. [2]






Knowledge management (KM)   The systematic sharing of information to achieve goals such as innovation, nonduplication of effort, and competitive advantage. [13]






Lateral thinking   A thinking process that spreads out to find many different solutions to a problem. [11]

Leader-member exchange model (LMX)   An explanation of leadership proposing that leaders develop unique working relationships with group members. [9]

Leadership   The ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve organizational goals. [1]

Leadership diversity   The presence of a culturally heterogeneous cadre of leaders. [14]

Leadership effectiveness   Attaining desirable outcomes such as productivity, quality, and satisfaction in a given situation. [1]

Leadership Grid®   A framework for specifying the concern for the production and people dimensions of leadership simultaneously. [4]

Leadership pipeline   A model of leadership development that tightly links leadership development with management responsibilities at each level of the organization. [15]

Leadership polarity   The disparity in views of leaders: They are revered or vastly unpopular, but people rarely feel neutral. [3]

Leadership style   The relatively consistent pattern of behavior that characterizes a leader. [4]

Leadership succession   An orderly process of identifying and grooming people to replace executives. [15]

Leading by example   Influencing others by acting as a positive role model. [8]

Lead user   An organization or individual that is well ahead of market trends. [11]

Learning organization   An organization that is skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights. [13]

Legitimate power   The lawful right to make a decision and expect compliance. [7]

Linguistic style   A person’s characteristic speaking pattern. [12]

Long-term orientation   A long-range perspective by workers, who thus are thrifty and do not demand quick returns on investments. [14]






Machiavellians   People in the workplace who ruthlessly manipulate others. [8]

Management by anecdote   The technique of inspiring and instructing group members by telling fascinating stories. [3]

Materialism   In Hofstede’s research, an emphasis on assertiveness and the acquisition of money and material objects, and a deemphasis on caring for others. [14]

Mentor   A more experienced person who develops a protégé’s abilities through tutoring, coaching, guidance, and emotional support. [15]

Micromanagement   The close monitoring of most aspects of group member activities by the manager or leader. [9]

Morals   An individual’s determination of what is right or wrong influenced by his or her values. [6]

Multicultural leader   A leader with the skills and attitudes to relate effectively to and motivate people across race, gender, age, social attitudes, and lifestyles. [14]

Multicultural organization   A firm that values cultural diversity and is willing to encourage and even capitalize on such diversity. [14]

Multicultural worker   A worker who is convinced that all cultures are equally good and enjoys learning about other cultures. [14]

Multifunctional managerial development   An organization’s intentional efforts to enhance the effectiveness of managers by giving them experience in multiple functions within the organization. [15]






Normative decision model   A view of leadership as a decision-making process in which the leader examines certain factors within the situation to determine which decision-making style will be the most effective. [5]






Open-book management   An approach to management in which every employee is trained, empowered, and motivated to understand and pursue the company’s business goals. [9]

Organizational creativity   The creation of novel and useful ideas and products that pertain to the workplace. [11]

Organizational politics   Informal approaches to gaining power through means other than merit or luck. [7]

Outcome   Anything that might stem from performance, such as a reward. [10]






Participative leader   A person in charge who shares decision making with group members. [4]

Partnership   A relationship between leaders and group members in which power is approximately balanced. [1]

Path-goal theory   An explanation of leadership effectiveness that specifies what the leader must do to achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation. [5]

Personal magnetism   A captivating, inspiring personality with charm and charismatic-like qualities. [8]

Personal power   Power derived from the person rather than from the organization. [7]

Personalized charismatic   One who exercises few restraints on the use of power, in order to best serve his or her own interests. [3]

Persuade package   A small, standard set of influence tactics that leads the target to behave in a particular way. [12]

Pet-peeve technique   A method of brainstorming in which a group identifies all the possible complaints others might have about the group’s organizational unit. [11]

Power   The potential or ability to influence decisions and control resources. [7]

Power distance   The extent to which employees accept the idea that the members of an organization have different levels of power. [14]

Prestige power   The power stemming from one’s status and reputation. [7]

Pygmalion effect   The situation that occurs when a managerial leader believes that a group member will succeed, and communicates this belief without realizing it. [4]






Readiness   In situational leadership, the extent to which a group member has the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. [5]

Referent power   The ability to influence others that stems from the leader’s desirable traits and characteristics. [3]

Relationship behavior   The extent to which the leader engages in two-way or multiway communication. [5]

Resistance   The state that occurs when an influence attempt by a leader is unsuccessful: The target is opposed to carrying out the request. [8]

Resource dependence perspective   The view that an organization requires a continuing flow of human resources, money, customers and clients, technological inputs, and materials to continue to function. [7]

Reward power   The authority to give employees rewards for compliance. [7]






Self-awareness   Insightfully processing feedback about oneself to improve personal effectiveness. [15]

Self-discipline   The ability to mobilize one’s efforts to stay focused on attaining an important goal. [15]

Self-efficacy   The confidence in your ability to carry out a specific task. [10]

Servant leader   One who serves constituents by working on their behalf to help them achieve their goals, not the leader’s own goals. [4]

Shadowing   An approach to mentoring in which the trainee follows the mentor around for a stated period of time. [15]

Short-term orientation   A focus by workers on immediate results, and a propensity not to save. [14]

Silent treatment   A means of influence characterized by saying nothing, sulking, or engaging in other forms of passivity. [8]

Single-loop learning   A situation in which learners seek minimum feedback that might substan- tially confront their basic ideas or actions. [15]

Situational leadership model   A model that explains how to match leadership style to the readiness of the group members. [5]

Socialized charismatic   A leader who restrains the use of power in order to benefit others. [3]

Social loafing   Shirking individual responsibility in a group setting. [9]

Social responsibility   The idea that organizations have an obligation to groups in society other than owners or stockholders and beyond that prescribed by law or union contract. [6]

Stewardship theory   An explanation of leadership that depicts group members (or followers) as being pro-organizational, collectivists, and trustworthy. [1]

Strategic contingency theory   An explanation of sources of power suggesting that units best able to cope with the firm’s critical problems and uncertainties acquire relatively large amounts of power. [7]

Strategic leadership   The process of providing the direction and inspiration necessary to create, provide direction to, or sustain an organization. [13]

Strategic management   The process of ensuring a competitive fit between the organization and its environment. [13]

Strategic planning   Those activities that lead to the statement of goals and objectives and the choice of strategies to achieve them. [13]

Strategy   An integrated, overall concept of how the firm will achieve its objectives. [13]

Substitutes for leadership   Factors in the work environment that provide guidance and incentives to perform, making the leader’s role almost superfluous. [1]

Supportive communication   A communication style that delivers the message accurately and that supports or enhances the relationship between the two parties. [12]

SWOT analysis   A method of considering strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in a given situation. [13]






Task behavior   The extent to which the leader spells out the duties and responsibilities of an individual or group. [5]

Team   A work group that must rely on collaboration if each member is to experience the optimum success and achievement. [9]

Teamwork   Work done with an understanding and commitment to group goals on the part of all team members. [9]

Territorial games   Also referred to as turf wars, political tactics that involve protecting and hoarding resources that give one power, such as information, relationships, and decision-making authority. [7]

Total quality management (TQM)   A management system for improving performance throughout the firm by maximizing customer satisfaction and making continuous improvements based on extensive employee involvement. [13]

Tough question   One that makes a person or group stop and think about why they are doing or not doing something. [4]

Traditional mental set   A conventional way of looking at things and placing them in familiar categories. [11]

Transformational leader   A leader who brings about positive, major changes in an organization. [3]

Trust   A person’s confidence in another individual’s intentions and motives and in the sincerity of that individual’s word. [2]






Uncertainty avoidance   A dislike of—and evasion of—the unknown. [14]

Universal theory of leadership   The belief that certain personal characteristics and skills contribute to leadership effectiveness in many situations. [2]

Upward appeal   A means of influence in which the leader enlists a person with more formal authority to do the influencing. [8]

Urgent time organization   A view of time as a scarce resource, leading to impatience. [14]






Valence   The worth or attractiveness of an outcome. [10]

Vertical thinking   An analytical, logical process that results in few answers. [11]

Virtual office   A situation in which employees work together as if they were part of a single office despite being physically separated. [12]

Virtuous cycle   The idea that corporate social performance and corporate financial performance feed and reinforce each other. [6]

Vision  The ability to imagine different and better conditions and the ways to achieve them. [3]






Whistleblower   An employee who discloses organizational wrong-doing to parties who can take action. [6]

Will to lead   A determination to accomplish important goals for the good of others. [2]

Win-win approach to conflict resolution   The belief that after con- flict has been resolved, both sides should gain something of value. [12]

Work ethic   A firm belief in the dignity of work. [2]







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